Sunday, December 29, 2019

Epidemiology Is Not For Diseases Among Human Populations

Background Epidemiology is the study of how often diseases spread through a population. This information can be used to help reduce the damage caused in future epidemics and also help to understand the best way to treat patients of a current epidemic. The word epidemiology comes from Greek, literally translating to â€Å"the study of what is upon the people†. However nowadays epidemiology is not limited to diseases among human populations, epidemiology can now be the study of disease in any defined population. Mathematical models of epidemics were not used until the early 20th century. When there were early pioneers such as William Hamer and Ronald Ross who successfully created models that shared similar properties to the disease. History Hippocrates The timeline of epidemiology starts in Greece with a man named Hippocrates, though now he is often referred to as â€Å"The father of medicine†. Hippocrates was the first person to observe the link between disease and the environment of the infected person, and he then began to think about whether the link might be causal. Prior to this ground-breaking idea people had simply attributed disease to a supernatural phenomenon and had not considered that there may be a rational explanation for the spread of disease through the population. Hippocrates decided to investigate the environmental factors involved with disease after he had noticed that different diseases occurred in different locations (for example: Malaria only seeming to occur inShow MoreRelatedChildhood Obesity Among Hispanic Children1729 Words   |  7 Pages Obesity among Hispanic Children Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decade (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Although the rise in obesity cuts across all of age groups, both genders, and all cultural and racial groups; statistics have demonstrated that Hispanic children are more likely to become obese than White or Black children in the United States. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (2011), childhood obesity is more prevalentRead MoreEpidemiology Nur/4081540 Words   |  7 PagesEpidemiology of HPV in Teenagers Rosalyn Huf NUR/408 June 4, 2012 Linnette Nolte Epidemiology today is considered to be the core science of public health and is described as a constellation of disciplines with a common mission: optimal health for the whole community (Stanhope amp; Lancaster, 2008). Epidemiology has reformed public health and continues to strive for disease prevention and health promotion in communities across the world. The population and disease that will be discussed inRead MoreThe Scope Of Public Health1076 Words   |  5 Pagesthat a population is living in conditions that enable it to thrive, we turn to the role of public health. We rely on public health officials to assess the health status of whatever population they are responsible for, to create and fulfill suitable plans of action that improve living conditions for those people. In other words, public health officials are designated for engaging in population health surveillance, controlling the spread of disease, and executing protocols for helping populations buildRead MoreDescriptiv e and Analytic Epidemiology1317 Words   |  6 PagesRunning head: Descriptive and Analytic Epidemiology TUI University Lea Glover MPH 504 Descriptive and Analytic Epidemiology Case Assignment #3 Dr. Sharon Nazarchuk Abstract Descriptive epidemiology is defined as the study of the amount and distribution of disease within a population by person, place, and time. Descriptive epidemiology answers the following questions: Who is affected? Where and when do cases occur? It describes cases by person, place, and time (TUI University 2008). Read MorePersonal Statement : Health And Wellness976 Words   |  4 Pages What if as a society we began to focus more on preventing chronic disease rather than treating them after onset? This is the question that has driven my interest in public health. I began my undergraduate career as a Viticulture and Enology major. I loved the idea of spending my days in a vineyard, nurturing grapes to maturity and then creating a final product that was entirely different from its humble beginning. It wasn’t until I was working in a lab at a winery that I realized winemaking wasRead MoreStds Essay1077 Words   |  5 Pagesadolescents and young adults. When broken down, betwe en 2015-2016 among 15-19 years the rate of reported cases of chlamydia increased 4.0% (1,854.2 to 1,929.2 per 100,000), those 20-24 years rate increased 1.9% (2,594.5 to 2,643.8 per 100,000), and the age-specific rate of chlamydia in 2016 among 15-19 was 1,929.2 per 100,000 and among 20-24 was 2,643.8 per 100,000 (2016 Sexually, 2017). Which shows that chlamydia cases are highest among adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 years. Also, between 2015-2016Read MoreEpidemiology of Homeless1613 Words   |  7 PagesEpidemiology of Homeless/Indigent People with Mental Illness Vulnerable populations are defined in many ways. Variables of the definition are dependent on the author, their current location and how they believe that they may assist this population. Vulnerability as defined in a healthcare setting are those with a greater than average risk of developing health problems by virtue of their marginalized sociocultural status, their limited access to economic resources, or personal characteristics suchRead MoreEpidemiology, The Science Of Preventive Medicine1508 Words   |  7 Pagesinvestigations, epidemiology traditionally has most often been associated with infectious diseases, with a focus on the epidemiological triad: agent, host, and environment. Epidemiology, the science of preventive medicine, provides a framework for studying and understanding these interactions. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and the determinants of states of health and illness in human populations. The basic conceptual framework of epidemiology is the interaction among the agent, hostRead MoreEpidemiological Studies : Risk Factors Essay1411 Words   |  6 Pagesutilize to identify risk factors of diseases in populations. Knowledge of these risk factors is used to conduct further investigation and to implement intervention preventions. Since there is a global rise in human infectious diseases outbreaks, it is important to understand the methods of epidemiology, in order to understand the dynamics of diseases. In the synthetic epidemic study, we performed an experiment to develop an intervention to prevent the spread of disease. The hypothesis mentioned, if 9Read MoreHeppatits B: an Epidemic1566 Words   |  7 PagesOrganization defines e pidemiology as â€Å"the study of the distribution and determinants of health- related states or events, and the application of the study to the control of diseases and other health problems† (CDC, 2014). Determinates of health are â€Å"the circumstances in which people are born, live, work and age as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness†. The communicable disease chain is a model beneficial to integrating the many concepts of communicable diseases (Maurer amp; Smith

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Overview Of Embryonic Stem Cells - 771 Words

Stem cells play a fundamental role during all stages of development and have the potential to study and treat disease (Spitalieri et al., 2016). Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent cells that emerge from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and can give rise to various cell types (Liang and Zhang, 2013). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have similar characteristics but are derived from adult differentiated somatic tissue (Liang and Zhang, 2013). This review will briefly compare ESC and iPSC in the context of cell therapy and disease modeling. The human ESCs have long been considered the gold standard for modeling disease and have served as the basis for developing cell therapies (Spitalieri et al., 2016). However, the use of†¦show more content†¦That is, ESC line are often exposed to fetal bovine serum or other animal-based media for culturing purposes (Desai et al., 2015). This increases the likelihood of activating the immune response and tissue rejection. It is, therefore, necessary for some receipts of ESC to take immunosuppressants and mitigate the immune response (Odorico et al., 2001). In recent years, researchers have developed ESC parthenogenetic lines that could provide HLA histocompatibility for the majority of a given population (Revazova et al., 2008). Moreover, ESC lines are currently being cultivated in systems that are free of animal contamination (Fu et al., 2010). Such improvements could advance the clinical application of hESC for the treatment of disease. Furthermore, iPSCs are in theory more ideal than ESCs for the modeling of disease due to two reasons. First, iPSC can capture the genotype of a particular individual and reproduce the severity of a disease (Acab and Muotri, 2015) Second, iPSC can take into account variations within different ethnic groups (Merkle and Eggan, 2013). This is not easily achieved in human ESC lines, which have thus far had limited success in modeling complex disease. In contrast, iPSCs can more closely recapitulate the genetic hallmarks of a disease (Acab and Muotri, 2015). This may prove beneficial for toxicity-testing and development of new drugs for the treatment of disease (Pappas and Yang, 2008). Nonetheless, iPSCs suffer fromShow MoreRelatedThe Debate Over Stem Cell Research1685 Words   |  7 PagesWhile the use of stem cells can offer a lot to the scientific community, the derivation of stem cells from embryos is ethically unacceptable; and the use of stem cells in humans should be completely prohibited. Since the first research on embryo stem cells in 1998 on mice the controversy has been relentless (Timeline), and even now, scientists have made great strides in waning off of embryonic stem cells and instead using induced pluripotent stem cells from adults, however these have their issuesRead MoreHuman Embryonic Stem Cell Research1313 Words   |  6 PagesJessica Rogers Kendra Gallos English III Honors 18 April 2016 Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, or HES cell research, is a very controversial ethical debate. This issues is a dilemma for scientist, religious activist, and many more. HES cell research is being disputed because the practice is morally wrong. The other side of the issue stands with many scientist, being that they see the potential lives it could save in the long run. Religious activist, andRead MoreEssay about Human Embryo Research 1019 Words   |  5 Pagesequal. The same law should be enforced concerning human embryonic stem cell research. Dr. James A. Thomson discovered stem cells in 1998 and they’ve intrigued scientist ever since. The stem cells themselves are derived from a three to four day old cluster of cells called a blastocyst and they are so coveted because they are pluripotent, meaning they can differentiate into any type of cell in the human body. Although embryonic stem cells show amazing potential to cure various disease such as cancerRead MoreStem Cel ls And Stem Cell Research1477 Words   |  6 Pagessociety is that of stem cells. Stem cells are the cells in the early human developmental stage that form to be any type of cell. Not only do these cells have the ability to transform, but they also act as the body’s repair system. With this knowledge, the scientific community has used these traits to help cure diseases and even save lives. However, there is a problem using stem cells for research. There are two kinds of stem cells that exist, Somatic stem cells and embryonic stem cells. The firstRead MoreStem Cell Type Is Best?1264 Words   |  6 PagesTopic: Stem research, which stem cell type is best? Umbilical cord stem cells or embryonic stem cells. General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform the audience of the advantages and disadvantage of using embryonic and umbilical cord stem cells in research. Central Ideal: While medical researchers believe that the use of embryonic stem cells is their best option in research, others believe it to be unethical and immoral, and that umbilical stem cells are a good alternative to embryonicRead MoreEmbryonic Stem Cells615 Words   |  3 Pagesinto spinal cord injuries. One of the topics he pushed for was embryonic stem cell research. Christopher Reeve died on October 10th, 2004, never fulfilling his goal to walk again. But if he had gotten the support and funding for stem cell research, his story might have ended differently. Embryonic stem cell research should be funded in the U.S because it could lead to the treatment to many diseases, there are other sources of stem cells, but they are limited to their use, and the eight-celled blastocystsRead MoreThe Controversy Of Eugenics And Genetic Engineering1632 Words   |  7 Pagesproject ended in the successful mapping of the underestimated 20,500 genes that make up a human’s genome and â€Å"has given the world a resource of detailed information about the structure, organization and function of the complete set of human genes† (â€Å"An Overview†). In modern times, eugenics has evolved into genetic engineering, and it is still as controversial a topic as it was in the 1940s. But why is that so? Surely if the option to change a negative trait about someone existed, such as eliminating aRead MoreStem Cells : Justification Of Utilization Of Stem Cell1696 Words   |  7 PagesAnvesha Mukherjee Hong GT Biology 9-1 19 February 2016 Stem Cells: Justification of Utilization of Stem Cells in Injuries/Paralysis Habitually, the majority of significant scientific discoveries that have occurred over the course of human history have been the center of fierce debate and controversy for one reason or another. From radical perspectives such as the Earth’s orbital around the sun to the theory that the planet isn’t geographically flat, scientists are often at the focal point of ethicalRead MoreThe Importance of Stem Cell Research Essay examples1503 Words   |  7 Pagesis a promising future in stem cells that offer a possible treatment for a wide variety of diseases. Scientists discover the capabilities of stem cells through their ability to repair, their opportunity of treatment, and their potential in future research. Stem cell research is the gateway to opportunities of treatments for diseases and possible cure for cancer, as scientists test the capabilities of stem cells. Stem cells are unspecialized that develop into other cell types and they replicateRead MoreStem Cells Essay1699 Words   |  7 Pagescontroversial research in stem cells. This technology offers hope to millions who are victims of a multitude of diseases and disorders. It can be used to regrow limbs, create organs, attack genetic diseases, treat malfunctioning bladders, etc. However, this same technology is also one of the most controversial debates in science today. If you type â€Å"stem cells research† into your Google search bar, you will most likely find not only advances in this field or a basic overview of stem cells, but articles on

Friday, December 13, 2019

Frankenstein Free Essays

The name â€Å"Frankenstein† is probably one of the most recognizable names in literature. The name came from the creature in Mary Shelley’s â€Å"Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus† (1818) It is a name that has captured the imagination and the fear of readers of many generations worldwide. And so, it is just understandable that many writers had adapted the story and the character of Frankenstein. We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein or any similar topic only for you Order Now The original piece â€Å"Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus† (1818) was remarkably written by Mary Shelley when she was only eighteen years old. Many other works were remakes of Shelley’s masterpiece, a testament to the success of the original text. Here are some of the remakes of â€Å"Frankenstein† in no particular order: â€Å"Frankenstein† a film directed and written by J. Searle Dawley (1920), â€Å"Frankenstein† a film that was directed by James Whale (1931), â€Å"Frankenstein 1970† a film by director Howard Koch (1958), â€Å"Frankenstein: The True Story† a television film written by Christopher Isherwood and directed by Jack Smight, â€Å"Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein† a movie adaptation by director Kenneth Branagh (1994), â€Å"Frankenstein† a mini-series for US TV by the Hallmark television network (2004), â€Å"Frankenstein† television adaptation by ITV (2007), â€Å"Frankenstein Jr. nd the Impossibles† an animated series adaptation in US television, â€Å"Frankenstein or The Vampire’s Victim† a play adaptation staged at the Gaiety Theater in London (1887) The character of Frankenstein also appear in many other works, a contemporary example would be in the movie â€Å"Van Helsing. † Even though there are many adapted versions of Mary Shelley’s masterpiece, all of those versions would still be inline with the original text. All of the main components of the novel are still intact like the characters, themes, setting, plot, and of course a remake would be incomplete without the inclusion of Frankenstein. There are many themes that could be unearthed from this particular text. Here are some of the most visible ones: man playing god, acceptance, secrecy, loneliness, humanity, knowledge, aesthetics, ethics, responsibility, and many others. In relation to the theme of responsibility, Victor Frankenstein had uttered â€Å"William, Justine, and Henry they all died by my hands† (Shelley 156) In that particular scene, Victor claims responsibility for the tragic death of the children even though they did not literally died by his hands. In the original text, the story is set during the eighteenth century. The location of the narrative would be constantly changing. The locations would be in Geneva, the Alps, Ingolstadt, Scotland, and England. But in the later adaptations, more contemporary locations were chosen by the writers. For instance in the animated series â€Å"Frankenstein Jr. and the Impossibles†, the story is set in the future and Frankenstein would be depicted as a young robot. In the original novel, it is mainly Victor Frankenstein and the creature (commonly regarded as Frankenstein) that would be interacting and conflicting with each other. But in most of the remakes of Frankenstein, some of the original characters were deleted. Even Victor Frankenstein was deleted in some of the remakes. And of course, the eight-foot monster with superhuman strength and intelligence (and a remarkable humanity within could also be considered) monster, more commonly known as Frankenstein would be a staple character in the remakes. Making Frankenstein one of the most feared, but at the same time loved fictional characters in literature. How to cite Frankenstein, Papers Frankenstein Free Essays From the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, the concept of the noble savage was extremely popular. People believed that man was inherently good and any evil that he develops is a direct result of the corrupting force of civilization. In Frankenstein, Shelley illustrates this change through the story of the creature. We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein or any similar topic only for you Order Now The underlying theme in the creature‘s story is a lack of understanding between him and other people. In his story, it is revealed that he was created knowing nothing. He did not understand emotions that normal people felt, nor did he know how to speak. This is the source of his misery in that he is unable to communicate with other people or understand their reactions. When he is driven away by fearful villagers, he is left wondering why they would do such a thing. It would seem that he is condemned to a life alone, unwanted by society. However, he finds hope when he stumbles upon the dwelling of a family. The creature, through his observations of the family, learns to speak their language and to understand human emotions. He longs to present himself to the family and to be accepted by them.However, when he finally does, they act like every other human he has encountered and drive him away. Through his reaction, it can be seen that this event changes his disposition towards humans. Before, he was a benevolent being, helping others and not wanting to do harm. This is shown when the creature says, â€Å"I discovered also another means through which I was enabled to assist their labors. † Being driven away by people that he put so much trust in made him an altogether different person. The creature now is totally different from what he once was. He has gained knowledge of both himself and of people.While he once was an ignorant being, now he has learned that no matter where he travels, people will fear and hate him. This is because people fear what they don’t understand. Even though the creature clearly wished the family no harm, they attacked him. The change that overcomes the creature sparks an intense hatred of all humans, and because of his experiences with people, he has decided to make war on their species. This change shows the concept of the noble savage. The creature was not angry until he had learned and been enthralled with the idea of joining a society.When the society he loved rejected him, his love turned to hate. This leads him to murder William and to seek revenge on his creator for giving him life and condemning him to live a miserable existence. Throughout the story, Frankenstein’s creation changes from an ignorant, emotionless shell of a creature to a knowledgeable being. The monster now can think and act for himself, something that he learned. His story is that of a quest; a quest to gain self-knowledge about what he is and where he came from. In the end, the quest ended with him gaining much more self-knowledge than he set out in search of. How to cite Frankenstein, Papers Frankenstein Free Essays The Power of Frankenstein and Manfred Throughout the novel Frankenstein, author Mary Shelley clearly illustrates the moral of the story. God is the one and only creator; therefore, humans should never attempt to take His place. Literary critic Marilyn Butler sums up that we aren’t to tamper with creation in her comment: â€Å"Don’t usurp God’s prerogative in the Creation-game, or don’t get too clever with technology† (302). We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein or any similar topic only for you Order Now Butler warns that as humans, we should never assume the position of God. As Victor Frankenstein takes advantage of his deep scientific knowledge, he is punished for taking his experimenting too far. The novel opens as Victor Frankenstein recalls his curiosity and fascination with human life. Frankenstein quickly becomes obsessed with experimenting, and he attempts to create a living being out of dead body parts. He succeeds, but his creation turns into a living monster. Exclaimed by Frankenstein, â€Å"It was the secrets of heaven and earth that I desired to learn† (Shelley 33). Victor is extremely horrified by his grotesque looking creation and falls into a severe illness. While Victor is ill, the monster escapes to the woods where he watches a family and tries to befriend the humans. But once the monster makes his presence known, the family can’t accept Frankenstein’s ugly appearance. Because all humans he encountered reject him, the monster begins to hate people and believe that they are his enemies. Frustrated, the monster returns to his creator and demands that Frankenstein makes a female companion to cure his loneliness. The creature promises Victor that he will leave with his female companion, travel to South America, and never come in contact with humans again. However, two years beforehand, the creature spitefully murdered Victor’s brother William to get back at him. Holding a grudge against his monster creation for the death of William, Victor refuses to make a friend for the monster. In an effort to make Victor as miserable as himself, the monster seeks revenge on his creator. The monster takes his frustration out on everything and everyone dear to Victor, and murders of Frankenstein’s family and friends. The remainder of the novel revolves around the struggles Victor Frankenstein encounters as he attempts to escape from the mess of a vengeful monster he has made. The moral of the story doesn’t simply stress that God is the only Creator, but it also emphasizes the responsibility we need to take for our actions. Humans all make mistakes, but we are all held accountable. Victor Frankenstein creates this monster and then runs away from the disaster he makes. Similarly, parents are responsible for the children they have, even if the pregnancy wasn’t desired. Frankenstein creates a monster he doesn’t want, but he is still responsible to take care of his mistake, which he fails to do. Victor Frankenstein expresses: â€Å"It was a strong effort of the spirit of good, but it was ineffectual. Destiny was too potent, and her immutable laws had decreed my utter and terrible destruction† (Shelley 38). Victor describes his intention to create as a good intent, but because the monster he created was sinful, his effort was useless. Victor is quick to blame his terrible creation on destiny saying that he was only trying to do honorable actions, but they weren’t successful. Though the message of the story is apparent, the antagonist and protagonist of the story can’t be as clearly identified. In the beginning of the novel, Victor Frankenstein is the bad guy for creating his monster and not caring for it. However some readers may say that as the story develops, the monster turns into the antagonist. The monster is searching for ways to make his creator unhappy. The monster’s god is Victor, he doesn’t know of any higher power. The monster learns to be evil and vengeful as he observes the humans, so he acts upon what he sees. Clearly, the monster’s sins such as murder are deliberate. The monster, however, wasn’t taught how to behave appropriately in situations. As we are commanded in the book of Romans, we are not to take revenge: â€Å"Do not take revenge, my dear friends, but leave room for God’s wrath† (Revelation 12:19). Though I am a firm believer that we are to follow God’s commands, I believe that the true antagonist of the story is Victor Frankenstein. Victor is the creator of this evil being, thus he is responsible for the neglect and actions of his monster. It is inevitable that a time comes for parents to let their children branch out to make their own decisions. Parents cannot be held fully accountable for their children’s mistakes, but they are accountable for the foundation on which they raised their children. Victor is very responsible for the monster’s decisions because Victor failed to give him a fair foundation. Running from his sins, Victor Frankenstein is responsible for all of his personal actions and most of the actions of the monster he chose to create. Victor dangerously messes with God’s job of creating. Once he makes this creature, he should have taken responsibility for the life he brought into the world. Because the creature isn’t nurtured, taught, and loved, I believe that all of his later sinful acts of revenge are a direct reflection of him being neglected. The monster does not create himself, or chose to be neglected, so he shouldn’t be responsible for most of his behaviors. In today’s society, everyone is held accountable for their actions, no matter what background or family situation they come from. Sometimes, we are unfairly held accountable for our wrongdoings even if weren’t provided with the resources to make better decisions. Generally, in situations such as in the classroom or social conditions, children and adults who haven’t had teaching and advantages given to them aren’t held as highly accountable for their actions. This is a similar situation to Frankenstein and the monster he regrettably made. I believe that Frankenstein should be held more highly accountable for his mistakes. The monster was never taught how to behave as he grew up, which wasn’t his fault. Living in the woods and being able to observe how humans should acceptably behave, he should be held partially accountable for his actions. I have come to understand that we are held accountable for what we know. Victor Frankenstein was an educated man who knew better than to tamper with the creation of life. There is no excuse for the mistake he made and didn’t assume responsibility. Victor Frankenstein is more of a monster than the monster he created. Evil is at the heart of the story as expressed by critic George Levine: â€Å"In gothic fiction, but more particularly in Frankenstein, evil is both positively present and largely inexplicable. † The monsters evil nature is inexplicable. As he was never nurtured and taught manners, the monster was also never taught to be evil. The monster chose to act on his evil emotions, which isn’t easily identified. At the end of the novel in an effort to destroy humans, especially his creator, the monster kills Victor Frankenstein’s brother, William, when he sees him in the woods. The monster also kills Victor’s love, Elizabeth. The monster is a prisoner to this state of a lonely life. He couldn’t help the way he was born into the world and left to fend for himself. He could have, however, chose to act differently on his angry emotions. Initially, Victor thought that he could escape this misery and get rid of the monster if he made a female. After more careful thought, Victor was worried that he will create a whole family of monsters who would take over the world. The scientist refuses to get himself into even more of a mess. It does appear that Victor learned from his mistake, but it seems to be too late. Victor is being spiteful in refusing to make the monster a companion. Though Victor still refuses to take responsibility for the one monster he already created, he is smart enough to acknowledge the tragedy that would come from creation of another. The novel Frankenstein shows close relation to Lord Byron’s play Manfred. Mary Shelly used Byron’s poem as an inspiration for her novel as both stories exhibit man’s struggles with the supernatural. Byron opens his dramatic poem with Manfred pondering his guilty conscience. Manfred conjures up seven spirits: earth, ocean, air, night, mountains, winds, and the star, but none of them grant him the wish of forgetting the thoughts that race through his mind. Under the cast of a spell, he then pursues his own death, but is not given his wish of death. As Manfred stands on the edge of a cliff, he contemplates suicide: I feel the impulse Yet I do not plunge; I see the peril Yet do not recede; And my brain reels And yet my foot is firm. (1. 2. 280-283) Death doesn’t take Manfred because it wasn’t his time. Full of depression about his onetime lover, Astarte, and the suicide of his dear sister, Manfred doesn’t know what to do. He refuses relief from the different spirits and also rejects religion. The Abbot shows up to Manfred to save his soul, but Manfred declines: â€Å"Manfred believes himself to be above his fellow mortals but he is not fit for the life of an immortal, either. To him, there is only one option for such a conflicted soul: death† (Warren). Manfred refuses to stoop down low enough to allow a mortal to help him. Mary Shelley and Lord Byron both exhibit the danger of tampering with the power of God. Lord Byron writes: â€Å"Sorrow is Knowledge: they who know the most/ Must mourn the deepest o’er the fatal truth, / The Tree of Knowledge is not that of Life† (1. 10-12). I interpret these lines to sum up that we shouldn’t mess with the knowledge that we have, because it doesn’t reap good things, or life. Victor Frankenstein certainly took his knowledge of science to a level beyond his place, and his knowledge brought about disaster life. Lord Byron also creates a character that takes too much control and acts in Gods position. Filled with guilt, Manfred tries to seize the power of God and decide his own time for death. That isn’t our position or our calling, only God’s. Victor Frankenstein tries to assume the position of God by creating life. Similarly, Manfred tries to assume the position of God by deciding when to end life. Refusing the Abbot’s help, Manfred turns from religion. Both characters acted as if their own power was above everyone else and God. Victor thought he was good enough to take God’s place of creating while Manfred thought he was too good to accept God’s gift of salvation. Both Shelley and Byron paint a clear picture of the consequences that come from attempting to take God’s power and position. Works Cited Butler, Marilyn. â€Å"Frankenstein and Radical Science. † Shelly 302. Byron, Lord. Manfred. Vol. XVIII, Part 6. The Harvard Classics. New York: P. F. Collier ; Son, 1909-14: Bartleby. com, 2001. www. bartleby. com/18/6/. [September 26, 2012]. Levine, George. â€Å"Frankenstein and the Tradition of Realism. † Shelly 209. Shelly, Mary. Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus. Ed. Simon ; Brown. 1818. Warren, Ashley. â€Å"Association of Young Journalists And Writers. † UniversalJournal AYJW. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. How to cite Frankenstein, Papers Frankenstein Free Essays Raphael Porras Tabula Rasa Theory: Frankenstein’s Creature The nature versus nurture debate has been an ongoing issue in Psychology. It centres on whether a person’s behaviour is a product of his or her genes or the person’s environment and surroundings. Some well-known thinkers such as Plato and Descartes proposed that certain things are inherited and innate or that they simply occur naturally regardless of human influences. We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein or any similar topic only for you Order Now On the other hand, other philosophers such as John Locke believed in what is known as the tabula rasa. It is a theory which suggests the human mind begins as a â€Å"white paper void of all characters without any ideas,† (Gerrig et al. 51-57). This theory is what  Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein revolves on as one researcher suggests that this notion of tabula rasa is what Shelley’s account of the Creature’s development seems to hold (Higgins 61). By considering this concept, where all humans start as a â€Å"blank slate,† as reflected in the character development of the Creature and narrative style being used in the story, one can see that the person’s environment plays a big role in moulding a person’s attitude and behaviour. This is noteworthy because the creature started his life as an innocent and naive person. He only became vicious and malevolent after going through harsh treatments of society. Although the Creature didn’t go through childhood, he began his life like a child. He had no knowledge or idea of how the world works. â€Å"I was a poor, helpless, miserable wretch; I knew and could distinguish nothing,† he said (Shelley 129). Higgins suggests that it is significant to know that the Creature did not describe any feelings of loneliness in his early stages of life; this only begins when he encounters the De Lacey family (63). Although he had been already treated ill by people prior to meeting them, the creature have not mentioned how he felt, whether he was upset about it or not, after all, he didn’t know how to respond to any kind stimuli tossed at him. Through day to day observation of the De Lacey family, he learned various things, from reading and writing to human history and relationships. Of all the stuff he learned, there is one important aspect of life that affected him the most and that is the essence of having a family. He only started to have feelings of compassion and sympathy because of them. I saw no cause for [De Lacey’s] unhappiness; but I was deeply affected by it,† the Creature says (Shelley 136). The Creature became so attached to the family that when â€Å"they were unhappy, [he] felt depressed; when they rejoiced, [he] sympathized in their joys† (Shelley 138). To be accepted by them was a precarious moment for him but, unfortunately, he got rejected by the f amily whom he cared and loved. Because of this he flees to the woods, and in turn, he saves a girl who almost got drowned. Instead of being called a savior for his heroic act, he rather got fired and shot that almost killed him. All these catastrophic moments of rejection by mankind add up to his feelings of aversion and abhorrence. â€Å"Inflamed by pain, [he] vowed eternal hatred and vengeance to all mankind† (Shelley 166). By killing Victor’s brother, William, and several of Victor’s beloved ones, he then turns into a vicious monster as what society brands him to be right from the start. This gradual development of the Creature, from an innocent human being to an atrocious monster, perhaps rests its claim on being a good foundation to the tabula rasa theory. Another functional way that Mary Shelley uses in the novel is her application of the first person narrative of the Creature. It is effective as it enables the readers to be more involved of the activities and engagements of the monster. Although he is not the protagonist of the story, this way of narration keeps the readers close to the action and makes them understand more the contemplations and cogitations of the Creature. This makes the readers feel as if they were part of a jury of a case where the monster is the one being prosecuted, trying to defend himself by relating his side of the story. Higgins suggests that the Creature’s narrative form has an impact on his confessional writings and rhetoric alienation (62). Through this, one can see the transformation of the monster from being like a child into becoming a cold blooded murderer. Through her portrayal of the development of the Creature and her unique style of narration, Shelley is able to picture to the reader the reality that society plays an important role in wielding a person’s attitude and behavior. Percy Shelley proposes that if you treat a person ill, he will become wicked; and if you requite affection with scorn, you impose upon him irresistible obligations – alevolence and selfishness (qtd. in Veeder 226). This, feasibly, holds true to the modern society today for no one is born a killer unless he or she is pushed to kill someone through traumatic and disastrous life events and experiences. Works Cited Gerrig, Richard, et al. Psychology and Life. 2nd ed. Toronto: Pearson Canada, 2012. Pr int Higgins, David. Frankenstein: Character Studies. Cornwall: MPG Books Ltd, 2008. Print. Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. Eds. D. L. Macdonald, and Kathleen Scherf. Buffalo: Broadview P, 1999. Print. Veeder, William. Mary Shelley Frankenstein. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1986. Print. How to cite Frankenstein, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Legal Writing and Research Communication Law

Question: Discuss about the Legal Writing and Research Communication Law. Answer: Introduction: The Supreme Court is the main head of the judicial system in the Republic of Singapore. All cases related to civil and criminal laws are dealt with by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is made up of primarily two courts one of them is the High Court and the other is the Court of Appeal. All the appeals relating to both civil and criminal cases arising out of the High Court are made to the Court of Appeal. The power to review appeals and decide a case on the basis of law which is exclusives to that of the High Court as well as courts subordinate to the High Court, is also vested in the Court of Appeal (Our Legal System ,2016). If the valuation of a civil suit is more than S$250,000 it is eligible to be tried in the High Court. Matters relating to probate are also eligible to be trialed in the High Court if the subject matter of the case is more than S$3 million and also if the case is in relation to foreign grant resealing. Suits relating to ancillary issue in family, which have a value of more than S $1.5 million, are also dealt with by the High Court (Gill, 2013). The High Court also has the power to try criminal proceedings, which involve capital punishment, and punishments, which exceeds 10 years of imprisonment. Offences in relation to which bail cannot be granted are also tried by the High Court. All matters, which arise in the territories of Singapore, are eligible to be tried by the High Court as a rule of thumb (Baum, 2015). The judicial powers in relation to Singapore are given to the Supreme Court and its chief justice is appointed as the chief of the judicial system. There are no restrictions made upon the Supreme Court for trying any proceedings be it criminal or civil. The Supreme Court consists of two tiers of courts the upper tier of the Supreme Court is the Court of Appeal and the lower tier is the High Court (Chan Lee, 2015). The judicial commissioners, judges of appeal and the chief judge make up the judges panel for the Supreme Court. The president of the republic of Singapore makes all appointments with respect to the judges panel of the Supreme Court with prior consultation with the prime minister who also consults the prevailing chief justice to make such decisions. If a person has been eligible under the Legal Profession Act and or has been a member of the legal services of Singapore for not less than 10 years he is eligible to be appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court. The Court of Appeal in the Supreme Court consists of the chief justice as well as the judges of appeal. The judges of the High Court can be asked by the chief justice to preside over selected proceedings in the Court of Appeal. Registry of the Supreme Court of Singapore has the responsibility to manage the administrative works of the court. Administrative works such as acknowledging the receipt of documents and making sure that they are sent to the judges for reference at the time of hearings are done by the registry. The registrar heads the registry of the Supreme Court of Singapore with assistance from then assistant registrar. The appointment criteria of these officers are similar to that of the judges. The judicial system of Singapore is divided into two levels and the state courts belong to the lower level of the judicial system. The state courts in Singapore are made up of mainly the district courts and the magistrate courts. A few specialized courts and tribunals for small claims are also a part of the state courts of the republic of Singapore. All cases which are not eligible to be tried by the Supreme Court are entitled to be tried by the state or subordinate courts of the republic of Singapore. More than 95% of the legal proceedings in Singapore are tried in the subordinate courts. The subordinates courts of Singapore annually handle 350,000 legal proceedings on an average. The judges and the registrar of the state courts operate under the authority of the Legal Services Commission of Singapore. Similar to that of the Supreme Courts the president also makes the appointment of the state court judges after the recommendation from the chief justice. The state courts of Singapore consist of six operation units, which are: The civil justice division The community justice and tribunal division The criminal justice division Dispute resolution center Corporate service division Division for strategic planning technology The responsibility of administration with respect to the subordinate courts in Singapore vests in a position occupied by a judge of the Supreme Court, a judicial commissioner or the presiding judge of the subordinate courts (Koman Whalen-Bridge, 2015). The legal proceeding which are tried by the state courts are adjudged with the help of a team of judges the leader of which is the presiding judge of the state courts. The district courts are eligible to conduct only those legal proceedings where 10 years punishment is maximum. It can give punishment, which is less than 10 years, it can sanction fine not more than $30,000 and a maximum of twelve cane strokes. This limitation has an exception with respect to legislations like the Misuse of Drug Act, Companies Act, and Prevention of Corruption Act. Whereas the magistrate courts are eligible to conduct those legal proceedings where five years punishment is the limit, where the maximum fine applicable is $10,000 and punishment, which allow for maximum of six cane strokes (Tan Teh, 2013). The main sources of law in the republic of Singapore are the constitution, legislative sources, subsidiary legislations like rules and regulations, case laws previously made by the courts and lastly customs which prevail in the country (Keltner Lillie, 2013). The most prominent source of law in the republic of Singapore is its constitution. The fundamental structure of the three pillars of the country, which are the legislative department, the judicial department and the executive department, are laid down by the constitution. The laws stated in the constitution of the country are studied in details and interpreted precisely for proper use. The rights duties and liberty enjoyed by the citizens of Singapore are laid down by the constitution through Article 4. Any law which do not comply with the provisions of the constitution is not valid and void (Barr, 2013). Another important source of law in Singapore are the laws made by the legislature. These laws are made and processed through the parliament before being enforced. The laws passed b y the parliament are also called statues (TAN, 2015). These laws are brought into existence through a resolution in the parliament to maintain law and order in the society. Like to stop the citizens of Singapore to be affected by use of dangerous drugs The Misuse of Drug Act has been enacted. The punishment and penalties for the individuals or group who deal in or consume dangerous drugs are enforced through this act. Acts to specify punishment to different categories of crime, laws to protect women and children from exploitation, laws to maintain fair and ethical business practices are also enacted by the parliament. The citizens of the republic of Singapore chose the members of the parliament through voting other members of the parliament are chosen through a process of nomination. All the bills passed through the parliament must be signed and acknowledged by the president of the republic of Singapore. The bills are passed through a first reading, second reading, the committee reading and the third reading in the parliament before they become a statue. The bill is also reviewed by the president council for minority rights before it becomes a statue. The Penal Code, Sale of Goods Act and the womens charter are a few examples of statues passed by the parliament. The rules and regulations, which are made by the executive department such as the health department, local bodies and statutory boards other than the parliament, are also one of the sources of law in Singapore. These laws include rules, regulations, by-laws, notifications, order and a proclamation. Regulation 16 of the Environment Public Health Regulation, the Miscellaneous Offences Rules, public Entertainment and Meetings Order, Rapid Transit System Regulations and The Sale of Food Regulations are a few sub legislations, which form the sources of law in Singapore. The decisions made by the courts in Singapore are also taken as a source of law in the country (Kozel, 2013). These decisions and adjurations may be the interpretation of the laws, which already exist or can be decisions, which bring a new concept in existence through development of laws of natural justice, equity and common law. Many major legal issues is Singapore like contract issues , issues related to property and even issues related to trust, torts and equity are often addressed through the use of judicial precedents. With the help of judicial precedents, it is ensured that a proper and just meaning to the existing statues in given. According to the doctrine of Stare Decisis , All the laws which are made by the higher courts has to be considered by the subordinate courts in making any decision about related cases. Thus, in Singapore the High Court is bound to obey the decision of the Court of Appeal and the High Courts decisions are binding on the adjudication process of the subordinate courts Judicial precedents mostly do not apply to decisions, which are made in the same courts. The judge of the subordinate court is not bound by the decision made by the judge of another subordinate court or any other judge of the same court. Some of the examples of judicial precedents are Chng sSan Tze v. Minister for Home Affairs and Fay Michael Peter v. Public Prosecutor (Lee, 2015) Customs are generally rules, which have been treated as laws from the very long period of time by the persons related to it. Customs can only be taken as a source of law in the modern society if they have been use and given attention upon in a case, they are not used as a source of law if they are inconsistent with any law, which is existing in the country at a given time. In order to be recognized as customs a rule has to be in regular use for a long period of time (Ovchinnikov, 2015). Customs in Singapore are not a major source of law and only a few customs have been recognized as a legal source. Few customs, which have become a source of law, are making checks in a bank, the modification of Muslim law by Malay Custom (Bin Abbas, 2012). References: Barr, M. D. (2013). Review Essay: Law and Order in a Land of Tough Love.Australian Journal of Asian Law,14(1). Baum, L. (2015).The Supreme Court. CQ press. Bin Abbas, A. N. (2012). Islamic Legal System in Singapore, THe.Pac. Rim L. Pol'y J.,21, 163. CHAN, G. K. Y. (2015). The Judiciary. Chan, G. K. Y., Lee, J. T. T. (2015). The Legal System of Singapore: Institutions, Principles and Practices. Gill, C. (2013). Open Access to Legal Materials in Singapore. Keltner, N. L., Lillie, K. (2013). SOURCES OF LAW.Psychiatric Nursing, 33. Koman, R. N., Whalen-Bridge, H. (2015). Clinical Legal Education in Singapore. InClinical Legal Education in Asia(pp. 137-158). Palgrave Macmillan US. Kozel, R. J. (2013). The Rule of Law and the Perils of Precedent. Lee, J. T. T. (2015). Foreign Precedents in Constitutional Adjudication by the Supreme Court of Singapore, 1963-2013.Washington International Law Journal,24(2), 253-288. Our Legal System | Ministry of Law. (2016). Mlaw.gov.sg. Retrieved 11 November 2016, from https://www.mlaw.gov.sg/our-legal-system.html Ovchinnikov, S. N. (2015). Definition of Customs Offences in International Law.Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences,6(3). TAN, E. K. (2015). The Legislature. Tan, B., Teh, M. K. (2013). Singapore.Handbook of Comparative Higher Education Law (Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group).