Sunday, September 22, 2019

Winning Elections Essay Example for Free

Winning Elections Essay b) Traditionally, winning elections has been an aim of political parties subordinate to representing political views. However, more recently parties have been adjusting their ideology, possibly to make them more desirable to the majority of the electorate and thus gain political office. As suggested by McKie, recent elections have been less between competing philosophies, much more about which set of managers was likely to get better results. Both Labour, and the Conservatives have moved considerably towards the centre of the political spectrum in the past couple of decades, and if there are fundamental differences between the two parties, then at least one of them is failing to reflect properly the concerns of the middle ground voter. This convergence of party ideology is most probably a move by both parties to make them more attractive to middle England. It is perhaps now only extremist parties that are intent on representing political principles, and this may be a reason for the recent rise in popularity of parties such as the BNP. In the last election, 57% of manifesto pledges for the main parties were non-partisan and couldnt be countered be other parties, this is a mark of the lack of choice the electorate is presented with and illustrates how parties are no longer representing strong political views with each party catering for a different section of society. In 1992 all three major parties were pro-Maastricht, which proves that parties are just pursuing policies that will appeal to the majority of the electorate. Labour used to represent the views of the working class, and their ideology was distinctly socialist, but under Tony Blair, and previously Neil Kinnock, Labour has tried to distance itself from its core supporters and trade unions, as that relationship was a vote loser. This reinvention of Labour ideology has been very prominent in recent issues such as Labours intransigence in not raising the salary for firemen and not having a good relationship with the Fire Brigades Union. The reform of the party came after 17 years of Conservative rule, and it was accomplished by the abandonment of many of its distinctive policies that it had fought and lost of in previous elections. When Tony Blair dropped clause four, it was in order to change the party, and when party reform was fully complete, Labour returned to power. However, some of Labours policy changes may have been due to the shrinking working class, which used to make up the majority of their support. This change in social structure may also be attributable to the Conservatives move towards the centre, as social boundaries have shrunk, the middle class which they traditionally represented is not as easily defined anymore. In the period 1945-1979, policy differences between the two major parties were generally peripheral, and thus both major parties governed for roughly 17 years each. In the two elections where there were substantial and essential differences in social and economic policy (1945 1983), one of the two parties plunged to catastrophic defeat. This was due to both parties projecting the party ideology through policy, thus effectively representing political principles even if it was not going to get them elected. However, there are still some policies that distinguish the major parties from each other. The parties set ideological goals in order to establish the best way to run the country; therefore parties are offering representation of the major strands of opinion. Labours electoral success is partly dependent upon offering a clear and distinctive vision of the nations future, their recent move away from the left has perhaps been in the interest of the electorate, and it would lose Labour political credibility if the electorate suspected that their new stance was the result of opportunistic caution. If one was to argue that political parties simply wished to get elected and this is why they have similar policy, then perhaps it should be questioned why there used to be a very distinct difference between the major parties. This can only be because of changing social structures mentioned previously. Ultimately, there is no way of knowing whether parties simply wish to get elected rather than represent political principles. However, it is likely that getting elected is at the top of their agenda, and perhaps they wish to represent distinct principles when they are in power, however the current Labour government has been acting much like a Conservative government would on issues such as Iraq, and university tuition fees. This perhaps highlights the changing society that we live in which has different political needs than it has in the past century, and political parties have adapted to provide the best options for the electorates needs.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

King Arthur Vs Beowulf English Literature Essay

King Arthur Vs Beowulf English Literature Essay Numerous stories about numerous heroes have been told and retold. All of these heroes do different things and all of them have different sets of qualities which make them heroic. Due to the fact that there are only so many heroic adventures and qualities, most are shared in part with at least one other hero. Such is the case between the great hero, Beowulf, from the epic poem Beowulf, and King Arthur from the story of Morte Darthur. These great heroes have strong similarities and a great deal of differences. Once their similarities have been compared I find it evident that Beowulf is the greater hero of the two. True heroes do good things for good people. Such is the case in the story of Beowulf. Beowulf leaves his homeland to help the Danish people rid themselves of the man eating monster, Grendel. This heroic quality is also evident in Morte Darthur, where Arthur consciously rides into a battle in order to rid his people of an evil knight who would not allow others to pass. Both heroes are displaying their concern for others by risking their own lives in battle for the greater good. In the same aspect they are also striving to gain the love and respect of the people they protect In order to obtain maximum respect in each conflict, both Beowulf and Arthur enter into battle somewhat alone. Beowulf specifically asks, That he, alone and with the help of his men, may purge all evil from the hall. His request is granted by Hrothgar, King of the Danes, so he and his man enter into the battle themselves so that when Grendel is defeated, the glory, love and respect belong solely to Beowulf and his men. Arthur does the same, he met with his man and his horse, and so mounted up and dressed his shield and took his spear, and bade his chamberlain tarry there till he came again. Although Arthur begins his journey alone he does meet up with Merlin, the court magician and faithful companion, who accompanies him. Much like Beowulf, Arthur gains great respect and praise from his people by fighting alone, even though it is not necessarily the smartest thing to do. The characteristic of being fearless when faced with death is often a trait of heroes because it is associated with courage and strength. King Arthur and Beowulf are not afraid to die, thus showing their courage to their adversaries and followers. When Arthur is faced with death he declares, welcome be it when it cometh, but to yield me unto thee as cowardly I had liefer die than to be so shamed. Simply put, he would rather die than admit to defeat and being cowardly. Beowulf feels much the same way about death. He illustrates this by showing no fear for his own life but instead expressing concern for the honor of King Higlac by asking that, if death does take him, send the hammered mail of his armor to Higlac. In sending his King his armor it recommits himself to his country and lets his King be reminded of his bravery every time he looks upon it. That is the extent, from what I was able to interpret, of which Beowulf and King Arthur are similar. Beowulf has way more confidence in his fighting ability then Arthur has in his. This is evident in the fact that Beowulf fights Grendel unarmed and says my hands alone shall fight for me, struggle for life. His reasoning behind this is that Grendel is the scorn of men and is so great that he needs no weapons and fears none so nor will he (Beowulf). Facing Grendel unarmed shows that he is brave and, more importantly, unafraid to fight on an equal level with Grendel. Since Grendel is going to fight without the use of weapons, Beowulf creates equality and therefore earns himself even more respect by doing the same. The less confident King Arthur on the other hand fights only with weapons. Once his wounds were amended his first thought was, I have no sword, followed by the task of finding him one. This demonstrates Arthurs relative weakness in his dependence on weapons when held in comparison to Beowulfs willingness to fight a creature greater than himself with nothing but his bare hands. It is this that I feel best illustrates Beowulfs greatness. Beowulf is indeed the greater hero as the help he received from his men was minimal, not by fault of his men but by the fact that Grendel, had bewitched all mens weapons, laid spells that blunted every mortal mans blade, Since Beowulfs men could give him no help due to Grendels spell, he had to defeat the monster by himself, with his bare hands. Arthur on the other hand lost his battle. First Arthur lost a jousting match and then he lost on the ground when the knight smote King Arthurs sword in two pieces. Merlin had to come to his rescue at this point and, by using his magic, he put the knight to sleep for a period of three hours. So to recap, Beowulf defeated a monster with no aid from his companions and Arthur could not defeat a knight and instead had to rely on the aid of magic from Merlin. Even though both King Arthur and Beowulf are great heroes, I think that Beowulf emerges as the greater of the two. He does this through his successful feats, not through his heroic qualities. For when comparing the heroic qualities of Arthur and Beowulf they come up pretty even. Both demonstrate a great love for others as they both try to do good things for other people. Their differences in heroism might be due to the fact that Arthur is a young hero in comparison to Beowulf who is an experienced hero. Either way they, like most heroes, have similarities and differences which make them the characters that they are.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Influence of Age on Self-Description Changes

Influence of Age on Self-Description Changes Gemma L Sobah An investigation of self-descriptions in data collected from two children of different ages, and how their age influences the focal point of their self-descriptions using the findings of Rosenberg (1979) Abstract (166 words) This report investigates the self-descriptions of two children in using the findings of Morris Rosenberg (1979). Rosenberg proposed that young children typically describe themselves using physical conditions, and older children/adults tend to use character and relationship qualities. The two participants took part in an semi-structured interview and the interview transcripts were coded and analysed by dividing the answers into the four categories created by Rosenberg. These were physical, character, relationships or inner. The information and data from the two participants were then compared to Rosenbergs findings. The locus of self-knowledge was also investigated briefly, which Rosenberg stated changed from outside to inner relatedness, the older the child gets. From my findings, it appears my data does to some extent agree with the conclusions that Rosenberg came across as with age they do seem to make less physical descriptions, but there did seem to be a change from locus of self -knowledge from the parent to the individual, as the child got older. Introduction (289 words) The subject of identity and how we acknowledge our own has always be a matter of intense debate those in the field of child development. The many aspects of identity require that many outside aspects are considered when looking at the development of ones identity, like religious, social ethnic, cultural. for that reason, in order to develop an identity, young children should be able to consider such aspects. Maccoby (as cited in Ding and Miel 2005 p. 131) suggests that a sense of self occurs slowly and in small steps. William James (1892 as cited in Miel and Ding 2005 pp 131) thought that a sense of self is divided in two stages: the self as a subject of experience and the self as an thing of knowledge (Miel and Ding, 2005 pg. 131). So as children grow up they develop into people more capable at self-awareness and more practically involved in awareness and responses from other people in their lifes. James believed, this development takes place within childhoo d during interactions between cognitive aspects and social experiences as children actively use their received knowledge about themselves to change parts of their environment. The research for this study relates to the research above due to the age of the participants and the means of the interviews. The interviews are all based on who the child sees themselves as. The way they describe themselves will be the main focus of this study. Whether they dwell solely on their physical appearance or if they go through all the categories and if their responses differ between the two ages. Using Rosenbergs categories, we are hoping to get a clear understanding of whether Rosenbergs and others, work is relevant and can be applied generally. Method (414 words) The design of the study was a comparison of self descriptions elicited from two young people, during semi-structured interviews. The interviewers asked two schools in Milton Keynes, one primary and one secondary to take part in the study. A number of children agreed to take part and their parents were approached for consent and consent forms were signed. Kieron Sheehly interviewed the primary school children and Peter Barnes interviewed the older children. One of the participants was a 8 year old female in primary school and the other was a 16 year old female in secondary school. Both interviews were conducted during school hours within their schools. A tape recorder was used to record the interviews and paper and a pen was used for the children to write down their individual statements. A sound recorder and a producer were present during the interviews. Microphones were used during the interviews and these were placed out of the way as to not get in the way of the interview. All chi ldren were informed at the start of the interview what was going to happen and what was being asked of them. They were also informed who would be using the recording and or what purpose. The interviews were paused while the children wrote down their statements and started again when the interviewer wanted to ask them questions. As there was a potential for outside or background noise, when the background noises began to interfere with the interview, the recording was paused and started again when it became quiet enough to carry on. The two interviews were conducted by staff from the Milton Keynes Open university for the purpose of this study. These were watched and their transcripts were coded and analysed according to Rosenbergs method. Self descriptions of participants were categorised by Rosenberg , into four categories (a) physical; (b) character; (c) relationships d) Inner. The childrens statements were divided where a category could be acknowledged from a single statement (see Appendix 1 and 2) and if a statement could be split into more categories this was done. The percentages of each category were then calculated by way of adding up the column, dividing it by the total and this by 100. This was how each categories percentage was worked out for each child and then these results were then put into a table to show which categories had the highest or lowest percentages for each child. These were then compared and results were explained below. Results (275 words) The hypothesis in this research study was as the child got older there would be a gradual change from physical characteristics to inner and relationship characteristics whilst the locus of self-knowledge increasingly shifted from others to the self as child grew older. Self descriptions that came from I statements, were coded and placed into one of the four categories (see appendices 1). Table 1: Self-descriptions by the children. The Categories Percentage for Annie (8 years old) was : Physical -40% Character 40% Relationships -20% Inner 0% . The Categories Percentages for Kirsty (16 years old) was: Physical 20% Character 20% Relationships 20% Inner 40%. Table 1 (see appendices 5) shows us that the responses that Annie gave were quite equally divided across physical and characteristics, whilst Kirstys were evenly spread over all the categories with the highest percentage being on the inner section. . This appears to support the hypothesis as there was a steady change from physi cal descriptive to psychological descriptive the older the children get. Annies answers to the locus of self-knowledge questions were quite mixed. She showed outer locus of self-knowledge; her teacher knows best about her school work and performance and her mother seems to know best about her behaviour. Although this shows support to Rosenbergs theory and hypothesis it was only using 2 participants and because of this cannot be over generalised to the wider population, which in turn limits the use of the results. Also because Annie only completed five statements and Kirsty completed 10 this cold have impacted the percentage of the results due to kirsty having more data to input into the table. Discussion (682 words) In this research study, two children were chosen. One being at primary school and the other at secondary school, although they were both females, although a larger sample would have allowed for a better analysis of the conclusions in relation to the population. Although the results appeared to supported the Rosenbergs findings(Miel et al, 2010, pp. 21-22) no specific conclusion should be made from such a small sample. Piagets theory of cognitive development also shows this, which could suggest that at about the start of the teen years there is a change from the solid process of development into the final stage of official process .This appears to be the stage at which most adolescents start to create an individual identity and are then able to put into their own point of view and social information about what it means to become an adult and reflect with purpose, on their self consciousness. As the children were interviewed by adults, people they did not know, they may have given different answers to what they may have said to a friend who had asked them the same questions or had a adult that they knew. They could have given biased results due to the fact they were aware it was for a study and they knew the purpose of the study. So because of this the results cant be relied upon wholly to be accurate and true. Regardless of this the way a child describes themselves may be different depending on their level of education and upbringing. For example a child of no school education who cannot read and has limited education may not fully certain aspects of what it means to be them and therefore may give limited answers based on their knowledge and education. Also a child who has been abused or had a very negative start in life, may dwell on more emotional lead than physical lead statements due to them being hurt a lot and there state being very emotionally based. Further still, the way in which a child describes themselves may be purely on what appears to be important to them. Kirsty tended to focus on herself as not being able to change her dress size I am not a size 8 (see appendices 4) and not being able to change who she is in general. This focus may be mainly on how she feels she is perceived by others around her or how she views herself, not just due to her age but due to her current circumstances. From this study it shows that Rosenbergs first hypothesis about the locus of self-knowledge has on some accounts been shown as being correct, although the sample size was a lot smaller than Rosenbergs, also the age of the older participant being incompatible, with Rosenbergs research study. My assumption is to suggest that younger children do appear to describe themselves focusing mainly on their physical attributes and less on how they feel and their personality traits while adults concentrate mainly on their forming on relationships and the impact these have on their sense of self, although the change from physical external descriptions of the younger child to the personal and inner feelings of the older child or adult did not appear to prominent in these results. This study has pointed out the difficulty in trying to determine and discover the idea of sense of self and locus of self-knowledge, and can be used for an indicator to their inner feelings and thoughts of an person in th e process of their development. These descriptions are fluid and live within the communication and changes with others and over a period of time. The locus of self-knowledge also changes by age from child to adult self. Even though the original hypothesis has been somewhat proven to be in general in agreement with the findings of Rosenberg, there are a few practical issues connected in the research of existential and definite selves. More in-depth research involving a much bigger and mixed cultural sample with categorizing results from different researchers could help to prevent some of these issues. Conclusion (46 words) In conclusion, children grow and mature at different times. The progress of developing a sense of self relies on many factors (friendship groups, parents, peers, outer society, etc). Regardless is does appear to be clear that there is a development from physical towards psychological self descriptive. 1,872 words References: Miel, D., Ding, S (2005) Childrens Personal And Social Development: The Early Developmet of Identity,. Milton Keynes. The Open University Appendices 1 Category Analysis Form 1 Coded Responses Physical: describing physical appearance, age, and physical qualities like flexible, sporty etc Character: Likes and dislikes, hobbies and interests, personal qualities and basic personality traits eg, I like to relax, Im laid back etc Relationships: friends and family, social mentions, eg I like making friends Inner: Temperaments, moods and feelings. Eg Im a happy person, I can get stressed easily. etc Appendices 2 Category Analysis Form 2 Coded Responses Physical: describing physical appearance, age, and physical qualities like flexible, sporty etc Character: Likes and dislikes, hobbies and interests, personal qualities and basic personality traits eg, I like to relax, Im laid back etc Relationships: friends and family, social mentions, eg I like making friends Inner: Temperaments, moods and feelings. Understanding of self. Eg Im a happy person, I can get stressed easily. Etc Appendices 3 Annies Statements: 1. I like doing harry potter lego, Ive completed the night bus 2. I love rabbits, guinea pigs and dos 3. I think one of my hobbies is using the tv remote control 4. Im really good at maths and get stuck on telling the time 5. Im not very good at remembering Appendices 4 Kirstys statements: I cant change who I am I can only be my best Ive always been an individual I am not size 8 Im pretty plain I get on well with many people Im friendly and my friends are like family I work as hard as I can I may set my goals too high I can only be me and if some people dont like that, I cant apologise anymore Appendices 5 Table of Results 1

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Sythetic Weed Essay -- Drugs, Teenagers

Synthetic weed This is the best stuff ever you have to try it! This is what some kids would say to one another. They are talking about this drug named K2. It is becoming a trend in most teenagers. Teenagers are being admitted to the hospital more often now. They have found something that is legal and can buy around there home town or over the internet. Parents have never heard of this stuff before. It is scary to think that you cannot even tell if a child is taking K2 because there is no drug test to tell you. I think that K2 is worse than the real marijuana. There are symptoms that do come along with taking this drug as well as long term symptoms. Some people may feel that K2 is not as bad as marijuana. But here are the facts on marijuana. The most illegal drug in America is pot. Not always and not in everyone will pot effect people. When taken pot can trigger a mild euphoria and increased sensitivity to body sensations. Some people experience perceptual distortions and they are usually pleasant. The effects of pot usually climax within an hour or two and then tend to fade all at once in three to four hours. Pot isn’t a single molecule that is a drug like alcohol or cocaine. There is a mixture of about 400 different chemical elements. There are about 85 cannabinoids that are unique to pot. The main cannabinoid is THC that is the main chemical in marijuana that triggers the drugs actions and effects on the body. (A) Some people who smoke their brains have more receptors to the THC than other people and that will affect the experience the users will have with THC to get the high. (b) THC is the chemical that is like a bomb when it goes off but it makes you feel good, it breaks up into about 80 separate by... ...ad K2 is but K2 is the worst of the two. Even though marijuana has more chemicals and the high lasts long than K2, K2 has more symptoms that are more dangers. Such as the heart beating fast more than a minute like marijuana. Also K2 you are vomiting and kids are being taken to the hospital more often now. K2 also has the keys that lock into the receptors better than marijuana and that way you can get a better high. THC is weaker than the chemicals used in K2 also. All of this information shows that it is bad for you. Anything you put in your body that is a chemical has side effects and should be used with caution. The one thing that I wish they would do to stop kids from getting admitted to the hospitals is to inform the kids what they are getting themselves into. Kids think it is good because it is legal but they are not being informed on the dangers.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

African Creation Stories :: African Culture Creation Tales Essays

African Creation Stories Since the beginning of humankind, there has been one common thread that ties together all cultures and religions of the world: an attempt to explain their origins. this holds true for the numerous religious groups existing on the African continent. In the absence of science, they resorted to creating stories to account for what they did not and could not understand. While similar in their basic design and theory, these stories varies greatly in their content and meaning. By studying them, much can be learned about the African people of the present and past. The Shilluks of the Nile region, for example, tell a story in which humankind is fashioned out of clay. In each region of the world in which the creator traveled, he created humans from the materials available, making some white, others red or brown, and the Shilluk black. He then took a piece of earth and gave them arms, eyes, etc. This story says much about their values and culture. In distributing the characteristics to man, he chose first to give them the ability to do work through the use of their arms and legs. They were then given the ability to see and taste their food. Finally, they were given speech and hearing with which to entertain oneself ("An African Story"). This shows the value system at work among the Shilluk, that work comes above all else. It also attempts to explain the differences between men of various races by telling of how they came about. A West African creation tale explains how two spirit people were accidentally sent down to earth by the sky god. Lonely, the people decided to create children from clay, but feel they must hide them when the sky god comes down. Because they are hidden in fire, the children soon turn to various shades based on how long they had been exposed to the heat. Over time, these clay children grow up and move to various regions of the earth, ultimately populating it (Fader). Much like that of the Shillu k people, this story serves a two-fold purpose: it explains both the creation of man as well as accounts for the differences among him. This tale shows the West Africans value these differences because they feel that all men are created equal and should be treated as such. The Boshongo, a central Bantu tribe of the Lunda Cluster, tell a different story.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Analysis Cambodias Health System Health And Social Care Essay

Cambodia is one of the poorest states in South-east Asia, with about 34.7 % of its entire population life below the poorness line. Cambodia is still emerging from decennaries of civil war and political instability, which had lay waste toing effects on Her wellness systems, and although there has been steady betterment in Her wellness indexs in recent old ages, the wellness position of its populates is among the worst in the Asia and Pacific part, with high baby, kid and maternal mortality rates. The wellness sector reform which occurred after the war has resulted in singular successes in the national wellness system, nevertheless despite these successes, several challenges and issues still exist in the wellness system which could be addressed with executable schemes. Critical Analysis of cardinal challenges and successes within Cambodia ‘s wellness system: Administration agreements concentrating on organisation and direction of the wellness system: The administration agreement originated from the wellness sector reforms which lead to the formation of a three tier system-Central, Provincial and District degrees. The Central degree is being managed by the Minister of wellness as the main executive, and comprises of three directorates-Health, Finance and disposal, and Inspection, with their several board of directors generals who supervises and monitors the assorted subordinate sections and offices. The Provincial degree is being managed by the provincial managers who supervises service bringing and ensures effectual use of resources in their several operational territories. The territory degree is being managed through public-private partnership by territory wellness attention troughs and in-between degree troughs from the non-governmental Organizations who supervise wellness service bringing in their several territories. The public-private partnership in the direction of the territory degree by the ministry of wellness and non-governmental organisation has showed important success in accomplishing dramatic addition in wellness service coverage and decrease in out-of-pocket outgos. A survey done in Mamut state showed an betterment in the direction of wellness installations in footings of handiness of 24 service, handiness of equipments and supplies, supervisory visits and presence of wellness staffs when they are scheduled to be on responsibility. However, despite these successes, the wellness system administration and direction capacity at the provincial degree is limited therefore ensuing in the in-between degree directors at the territory degrees being supervised adequately by their several provincial managers. Resource coevals, allotment and direction: Cambodia ‘s wellness sector is being financed by Government grosss, external giver assistance and private ( out-of-the pocket payment ) .Government ‘s budget for wellness has increased significantly in recent old ages making $ 9.4 per capital in 2009, which is rather high in South-east Asia. External giver assistance is twice authorities gross, with the wellness sector extremely dependent on giver support. However despite the increasing investing in wellness finance from authorities budget and other external givers, private ( out-of-the pocket ) outgo still accounts for the largest part of wellness outgo which is spent on uncontrolled private wellness attention. Furthermore despite entire increased wellness outgo, cardinal wellness indexs are still weaker than in neighboring states that spend less money on wellness, the challenge nevertheless is more of allotment and effectual usage of financess instead than unequal fundss. Budget executing have improved in recent old ages with timely releases, nevertheless allotment of financess to the provincial and territory degrees tend to be really slow at the beginning of the twelvemonth due to the figure of blessing stairss that have to be met before the financess are disbursed. When the financess are eventually disbursed, wellness installations below the provincial degree do non hold a elaborate budget program and are non accountable for the usage of finance taking to uneffective usage of resources. The measure of wellness professionals is low with a low staff to population ratio of 1:1000 ; half of WHO ‘s recommendation. However compared to Sub-Saharan Africa, Cambodia has about twice the figure of physicians per population. However the chief challenge is deficit of wellness staffs in the rural countries particularly accoucheuses and nurses due to hapless staff reimbursement and besides the inadequate accomplishment and competency of wellness workers ensuing in uneffective bringing of wellness services. Main national and international influences and their effects on equity: The many old ages of war and political convulsion resulted in the limited wellness installations and wellness workers particularly in rural countries. However after the war, several wellness reforms were enacted in the countries of wellness funding, wellness coverage program and wellness direction which aimed at advancing equity, increasing coverage and cut downing urban-rural disparities in accessing wellness attention services. The wellness equity fund is being financed by the authorities and non -governmental organisations and has provided the hapless entree to liberate and quality wellness attention services. In a survey done in Kampong Cham the biggest state in Cambodia, the figure of bringings in wellness installations had increased by 28 % after the debut of the fund strategy and this accounted for 40 % of bringings among the hapless, therefore enabling hapless adult females who used to present at place with the aid of an unskilled traditional birth attender deliver in a wellness installations under the attention of a skilled birth attender. The wellness coverage policy resulted in the development of the territory based wellness attention system with the Reconstruction of wellness installations and territory, which were distributed harmonizing to population coverage ensuing in increased geographic entree to wellness installations particularly in the rural countries. However, due to the hapless wages and rewards of wellness workers, most of the wellness installations in the distant countries remain short-handed and under-utilized, ensuing in people seeking wellness services from traditional therapists and unqualified private service suppliers despite the available of the financess and wellness installations taking to high out-of the pocket disbursement and hapless wellness position of the people. External giver assistance plays a important function in funding wellness attention services, accounting for approximately 50 % of the entire wellness outgo. Donor ‘s support has contributed significantly in heightening wellness sector development taking to an betterment in the wellness of people of Cambodia particularly female parents and kids, which has resulted in decreased maternal and child mortality rates, reduced entire birthrate rates, improved nutritionary position among adult females and kids and a more effectual wellness system. However this support has been provided in a disintegrated mode which is ill aligned with authorities precedences despite attempts made with the Sector broad direction ( Swim ) procedure. Furthermore donor bureaus tend to work independent of each other, taking to disintegrated support of the wellness sector which is controlled by the giver ‘s precedences: which focus on four chief areas-HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Maternal and Child wellness. Consequently ill aiming the demands of the hazard population and therefore pretermiting other facets of the wellness system where it is most needful. The wellness sector of Cambodia is extremely dependent on Donor support, ensuing in the non-governmental organisations playing a important function in policy devising and execution and act uponing the precedences of the heath sector which are curative- based with less accent on public wellness practises. Resulting in preventable diseases such as diarrhea, dandy fever febrility and vaccinum preventable diseases being the major causes of decease in Cambodia. Schemes for bettering administration agreement: The administration and direction capacity at the provincial degree should be improved through wellness system beef uping and capacity edifice attempts therefore increasing the capacity of the provincial managers to publish, design and supervise the activities of the assorted several territories. This would be implemented through edifice effectual co-ordination and coaction procedure between the provincial managers and private suppliers for effectual bringing of wellness attention services through regulative mechanisms. Schemes for bettering funding and human resource coevals, allotment and direction: The allotment and direction of fiscal resources to provincial and territory degrees should be improved through decentalisation of budgets and beef uping the system for tracking budgets and outgos. The decentalisation of budgets would ensue in the decrease of the figure of blessing stairss therefore bettering the eternity of budget allotment to provincial and territory degrees. Efficient direction of fiscal resources would be done through the formation of an efficient budgeting and scrutinizing system therefore doing wellness installations account for their usage of resources. The distribution of wellness professionals should be improved through deploying wellness professionals particularly accoucheuses and nurses to remote countries on contracts footing with inducements and bettering staff wage through rural allowances and installation based salary supplementation from user fees. In a long tally, the figure of wellness professionals in distant countries can be increased by acknowledging more pupils into schools and universities and deploying them to function in distant countries as a requirement to being for good registered, this scheme has worked with good consequences in Nigeria. The professional expertness and proficiency of wellness attention workers particularly accoucheuses and nurses should be improved through pre-service and in-service preparation which should be done quarterly with more accent on clinical and public wellness practises. This would ensue in improved public presentation and distribution of wellness attention workers therefore cut downing the inequalities in the wellness position of the people of Cambodia. Schemes for turn toing national and international influences and their effects on equity: The coordination of giver ‘s support should be improved through the sector broad attack procedure ( SWAP ) by alining the giver ‘s precedences and funding with the wellness sector precedences and beef uping the co-ordination of giver ‘s support and activities through pooling agreement therefore ensuing in efficient usage of resources towards accomplishing the National wellness sector ‘s marks. However strong authorities leading, political committedness, efficient direction organic structure and doing a policy to its consequence will be indispensable in doing the scheme accomplishable. The sector broad attack procedure would be implemented by doing it a constituent of the Health sector strategic program, which would be endorsed by all external givers, with a set of indexs which would be used for measuring the execution of the policy and the wellness sector ‘s advancement, set uping a codification of behavior which would be signed by the authorities and development spouses and organizing a sector co-ordination commission who would urge and inform the external givers of cardinal determinations related to the policies and precedences of the wellness sector. This attack has worked in Mozambique ; who has a similar context like Cambodia in footings of fragmented support by external givers, heavy trust on external giver assistance and station -conflict state of affairs with much success. The hapless wage and rewards of wellness attention workers particularly in distant countries should be improved through the usage of equity financess and user fees to supplement the wages of wellness workers. This would be implemented through the allotment of 60 % of the financess to be used in supplementing the rewards of wellness workers with conditions attached: which would include public presentation and figure of hours worked. This attack has been piloted with important success in Vietnam ensuing in wellness workers gaining more money by working in public rural wellness installations ensuing in an addition in the figure of wellness workers in those installations. Decision: The wellness position of the Cambodians has improved significantly since the post-war period. Two of the measurings used for specifying the quality of the wellness system-Infant and Child mortality rates have improved significiantly, nevertheless Maternal mortality has non improved significantly, staying a greater concern, though important advancement have been made in child wellness, maternal and generative wellness. Consequently beef uping of the wellness system in Cambodia is really important in bettering the efficiency and effectivity of wellness service bringing.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Global warming: a human impact Essay

According to Wikipedia the free encyclopedia, global warming was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824 and investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896 and is stated as the warming of planet’s surface due to â€Å"emission of infrared radiation by atmospheric gases. † Thus global warming can be described as an increase in average temperature of the earth’s surface air and oceans in recent times and its predicted continuation. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicted a rise in temperatures by 1. 1 to 6. 4 ° C i. e. , 2. 0 to 11. 5 ° F between 1990 and 2100. The global average atmospheric temperatures near the earth’s surface rose from 0. 74  ± 0. 18 ° C i. e. , 1. 3  ± 0. 32 ° F in the last century. The general scientific opinion prevailing on the climatic change is that â€Å"most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. † Certain human activities such as burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and agricultural activities result in release of green house gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. Natural phenomenon such as solar temperature variations and volcanoes too had an impact on global warming. This rise in global temperatures has serious implications such as rise in sea levels, changes in pattern of precipitation thus leading to droughts, floods, heat waves, hurricanes, tornadoes and ice shelf disruption such as the Larsen Ice Shelf. Other implications could be variations in agricultural yields, glacier retreat, reduction in summer stream flows, extinction of species and increase in the range of disease vectors. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) stated that global warming could also lead to â€Å"deadly heat waves and spread of disease. † Extreme heat waves in 2003 caused more than 20,000 deaths in Europe and over 1500 deaths in India. Dengue fever virus carrying mosquitoes survived previously at an altitude of 3,300 feet but recently they were found at 7,200 feet in Andes Mountains of Colombia, similarly malaria was detected at higher altitudes in Indonesia. Disease-carrying mosquitoes are spreading as climate shifts allow them to survive in formerly inhospitable areas. Mosquitoes that can carry dengue fever viruses were previously limited to elevations of 3,300 feet but recently appeared at 7,200 feet in the Andes Mountains of Colombia. Malaria has been detected in new higher-elevation areas in Indonesia. Wikipedia the free encyclopedia stated that more than 160countries signed the Kyoto Protocol an international agreement to combat global warming. The Kyoto Protocol is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the countries ratifying this protocol are committed to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and five other green house gases. Developing countries such as China and India which rank second and third largest CO2 behind the US are exempted from meeting the emission standards in this protocol. Increase in CO2 leads to its dissolution in ocean water and forming carbonic acid resulting into ocean acidification meaning a change in pH of ocean waters and consequently a total change in the eco-balance leading to disappearance to certain species of living forms in the ocean. According to the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), simple measures such as usage of renewable sources of energy like sunlight, wind, wave energy and replacement of decade old coal burning power plants with cleaner and efficient ones would curb the global pollution and help in reducing carbon dioxide pollution positively. Concluding the paper I would like to state that sincere efforts are required to made by the governments in countries like the US, China, India and Japan to minimize pollution with the help of governmental and non-governmental organizations for a better life to future generations. Works Cited Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. Global warming (2007). Page retrieved on March 8, 2007 from: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Global_warming Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. Kyoto Protocol (2007). Page retrieved on March 8, 2007 from: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Kyoto_Protocol Natural Resources Defense Council. Global Warming Basics (2007). Page retrieved on March 8, 2007 from: http://www. nrdc. org/globalWarming/f101. asp Natural Resources Defense Council. Consequences of Global Warming (2006). Page retrieved on March 8, 2007 from: http://www. nrdc. org/globalWarming/fcons. asp.