Thursday, January 23, 2020
In recent years the video game market has been rising. With the new advancements with technology the limitations are slowly disappearing, what was once unimaginable is now possible. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth is playing video games for enjoyment more than ever before. The market has even started making its way into classrooms, in the form of instructional mediums. These games are specifically made to increase knowledge and skills, some are even meant for enjoyment but double as educational. The marketers of video games have picked up on this fact and have been working on making more suitable games. There are many different aspects of this new technique of teaching that still needs to be discovered. There are many different reasons as to why educators are supplementing games into their classrooms. Simpson & Clem (2008) stated that the reason as to why this generation learns differently is because they have grown up in a digital world. This has influenced students to learn and think differently than the previous generations. Simpson (2006) stated that 92% of children between 2 and 17 play video games. Also stated is that video games are used on a daily basis in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Gordon (2010) wrote that students are lacking motivation to learn, causing them to fail state tests. Also stated by Gordon students were more engaged in class, practiced more skills, and completed their homework. As stated before students use video games in their daily lives, which is related to the way they learn. Simpson (2008) stated that students lean more if they are actively engaged. This in fact has been proven through an increase of test scores. According to Din & Calao (2001) wrote that students who had low focus were less focused when a teacher was teaching, and more focus when computers were used. Rice (2007) wrote that educational video games increase team building, experiential learning, and understanding of abstract concepts. As society, education, and technology change video games for educational purposes will be more prevalent in classrooms. The key to using video games in the classroom is proper implementation. Gordon (2010) gave tips as of how to properly implement games into a school environment. Also stated was that the right game must enforce what students need to learn and should be parallel to the state standards. According to Gordon (2010) there are many questions that need to be answered for proper implementation; these questions are who, what, when, and where. Educacional Video Games :: Education, Classrooms In recent years the video game market has been rising. With the new advancements with technology the limitations are slowly disappearing, what was once unimaginable is now possible. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth is playing video games for enjoyment more than ever before. The market has even started making its way into classrooms, in the form of instructional mediums. These games are specifically made to increase knowledge and skills, some are even meant for enjoyment but double as educational. The marketers of video games have picked up on this fact and have been working on making more suitable games. There are many different aspects of this new technique of teaching that still needs to be discovered. There are many different reasons as to why educators are supplementing games into their classrooms. Simpson & Clem (2008) stated that the reason as to why this generation learns differently is because they have grown up in a digital world. This has influenced students to learn and think differently than the previous generations. Simpson (2006) stated that 92% of children between 2 and 17 play video games. Also stated is that video games are used on a daily basis in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Gordon (2010) wrote that students are lacking motivation to learn, causing them to fail state tests. Also stated by Gordon students were more engaged in class, practiced more skills, and completed their homework. As stated before students use video games in their daily lives, which is related to the way they learn. Simpson (2008) stated that students lean more if they are actively engaged. This in fact has been proven through an increase of test scores. According to Din & Calao (2001) wrote that students who had low focus were less focused when a teacher was teaching, and more focus when computers were used. Rice (2007) wrote that educational video games increase team building, experiential learning, and understanding of abstract concepts. As society, education, and technology change video games for educational purposes will be more prevalent in classrooms. The key to using video games in the classroom is proper implementation. Gordon (2010) gave tips as of how to properly implement games into a school environment. Also stated was that the right game must enforce what students need to learn and should be parallel to the state standards. According to Gordon (2010) there are many questions that need to be answered for proper implementation; these questions are who, what, when, and where.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
This is a free additional chapter for Ã¢â¬ËEvidence Based TeachingÃ¢â¬â¢ by Geoff Petty (2006) Nelson Thornes. It can be downloaded from www. geoffpetty. com. The book as a whole combines and summarises research on which teaching methods and strategies work best, and explains these strategies with examples. See the notes at the end of this chapter for more detail. Can I get my students to behave better? The evidence is emphatic, yes you can! And we know how. There are of course very many strategies designed to improve classroom management and discipline, but which ones work? Robert Marzano (2003) summarised the findings of over 100 reports on classroom management, including 134 rigorous experiments designed to find out which classroom management techniques work best. These experiments were carried out with real teachers in real classrooms. This chapter draws heavily on this Ã¢â¬Ëmeta-studyÃ¢â¬â¢ of MarzanoÃ¢â¬â¢s, and compares strategies to find out which is best. Such studies of studies are the best source of evidence on what works as they include and integrate all reliable evidence. For a full account see Ã¢â¬ËClassroom Management that WorksÃ¢â¬â¢ Robert Marzano et al (2003) for the detail, it is well worth reading. These experiments tell us what teachers have made work, rather than reporting hunches and wishful thinking. No special training is required to use these strategies. If you are a reasonably experienced teacher, just experiment with the following methods, and you should get positive results quite quickly. You will need to give them a fair try for a few lessons before you and your students get the hang of them. The investment will be well worth it as their improved behaviour and motivation will begin to show. Less experienced teachers may need more time to make the strategies work. MarzanoÃ¢â¬â¢s meta-study describes four basic approaches that have been found to improve behaviour in classrooms. Their effectiveness is compared in the table below. Comparing the effectiveness of aspects of classroom management| Average effect-size| Number of students or pupils| Number of studies| Decrease in number of disruptions(Average for the studies)| Summary of experimental data from Marzano (2003)| | | | | Rules and proceduresStrategies to clearly and simply express rules and other expectations of student behaviour. Also to justify these persuasively from the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s and studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ point of view. For greatest effect the rules are negotiated with students| 0. 76| 626| 10| 28%| Teacher-student relationshipsStrategies to improve the rapport, and mutual respect between teacher and student| 0. 87| 1110| 4| 31%| Disciplinary interventionsThe effective use of Ã¢â¬Ësticks and carrotsÃ¢â¬â¢ to enforce the rules described above| 0. 91| 3322| 68| 32%| Mental setStrategies to develop your awareness of what is going on in your classroom and why. A conscious control over your thoughts and feelings when you respond to a disruption. | 1. 3| 502| 5| 40%| Marzano grouped high quality research studies on classroom management into the four categories above, and then calculated an average effect size for each. Ã¢â¬Å"Effect sizeÃ¢â¬ is explained in chapter 4, they are a measure of how effective a strategy is. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know about effect sizes look instead at the last column in the tables: Ã¢â¬Ëpercentage reduction in the number of disruptionsÃ¢â¬â¢. For example, in experiments on strategies that involve teachers in devising rules and procedures the number of disruptions in the classroom was reduced by 28% on average. This is in comparison with not devising explicit rules and procedures. In experiments, only one strategy can be used at a time. (If two were used, we would not know which caused any positive effects. ) However, you can obviously use strategies in all these categories at once. This will have a greater effect than using strategies in one category alone. However, it is not statistically valid to add the effect sizes or the percentages in the table to find their combined effect. If you find this a bit bewildering, just remember that the strategies that teachers made work best are those with a large percentage in the last column in the tables. However you are unique! You might not get the same results as an average teacher. So the best results will probably come from concentrating on the category that you or your students have most difficulty with, or that you have considered least in your teaching. The final test is what works in your classroom, try the methods for a few weeks and see what happens! I will now look at the strategies that have been found to work best in each of MarzanoÃ¢â¬â¢s four categories. I will only outline these, and if you want more detail please read the following chapters in my Ã¢â¬ËTeaching TodayÃ¢â¬â¢, which have more strategies and more detail. I am relieved to say these chapters are very much in line with the Marzano findings. Alternatively follow up one of the Chapters in Ã¢â¬ËTeaching TodayÃ¢â¬â¢ that might be helpful: 7 The teacher Ã¢â¬â learner relationship and equal opportunities page 77 8 Classroom management page 96 9 Discipline and problem solvingpage 108 references at the end of the chapter. Some teachers think a well-planned, interesting lesson will by itself prevent disruption. Or that if the teacher is entirely benign and respectful of students, conflict will simply melt away. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the case. We often start our teaching careers with these assumptions, but enlightenment usually doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take long. All teachers experience problems with behaviour, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just that some are better at preventing it, and dealing with it. But how? The strategies that teachers have made work best in experiments are explained below, with the theory outlined. However, if you are only interested in the strategies themselves look for the strategy icon in the margin: Improving your use of rules and procedures You might be forgiven for believing that how students should behave in classrooms is blindingly obvious, and explanation is entirely unnecessary. However, experiments show that classrooms become much more orderly when rules are stated, or better still negotiated, discussed and fully justified. It seems the little blighters need persuading of the obvious! So: 1. Create rules: Decide for yourself what rules and procedures will maximise learning, and would create a good atmosphere in your class. Alternatively adapt the rules in the box on page 4. Express these rules positively rather than as a list of Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢tsÃ¢â¬ . There should be a maximum of about 8 rules at secondary level, some say less at the elementary level. 2. Justify rules. Work out to your own satisfaction a persuasive case for each of these rules, however obvious this is. IÃ¢â¬â¢m afraid Ã¢â¬Ëbecause I say soÃ¢â¬â¢ is not a persuasive justification! Very early on, perhaps in your first meeting with the class, explain that you want an effective, fair and happy classroom, and a set of rules and procedures to achieve this. There are two main ways to do this, set out in 3 and 4 below. 3. Discuss rules with the class. Discuss why we have laws, rules and procedures in football, families, and in society. Ask for examples. (Avoid the off-side rule even if you understand it! ) What would happen if we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have rules? Explain that the purpose of class rules is not to pump your megalomania, but to improve learning, and to ensure people enjoy the class. 4. Negotiate to get commitment. Suggest your set of rules as a start, asking for deletions, additions and suggestions. Be prepared to justify and compromise. (Alternatively ask the class to devise their own set of rules as described in 5 below. ) * Consider asking students to work in small groups to make sticky note responses to your rules. Then display and discuss these as a class. * Consider asking each group to design a poster to illustrate one of the rules, and display these on the notice board. These can then be used as a reminder in subsequent lessons. * Students could literally Ã¢â¬Ësign upÃ¢â¬â¢ to the rules as political leaders sign treaties. Refer to the rules as Ã¢â¬Ëour rulesÃ¢â¬â¢ not as Ã¢â¬ËmineÃ¢â¬â¢. 5. Get the class to devise their own rules. Especially with older or more responsible groups you could ask them to come up with their own class rules. It may help to start this process off if you give them issues such as Ã¢â¬Ëhow can we make sure everyone gets the help they need? Ã¢â¬â¢. Or you could ask them what has worked in other classrooms. * Students can work in groups to devise rules on different aspects of class management, e.g. bringing materials; talking; attendance and punctuality, etc * The class can then discuss and then vote on suggestions * Then you go away and finalise the set of rules. You have every right to the last say of course. If you reject a popular suggestion explain why. Here is a typical set of rules at secondary or college level. It is of course best to devise your own: 1. Treat others as you want to be treated yourself. Be positive and helpful. Try to help two other people every day. 2. Treat other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s property at least as well as you would treat your own. 3. Hands up if you want to say something when the teacher, or another student is talking. 4. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t distract others from their work. Only talk to neighbours, and only about work. 5. If you are stuck ask neighbours for help first, then ask Mr Petty. 6. No unpleasantness, snatching or hitting. If you canÃ¢â¬â¢t resolve a disagreement yourself, or with your group, consult Mr Petty 7. Leave the room better than you found it. The aim here is to get students to Ã¢â¬Ëbuy intoÃ¢â¬â¢ the rules and to see them as their own, and as worth keeping and enforcing. Other uses of rules * Remind students of any relevant rules before a potentially disruptive activity. This is more positive than only responding to disruption and has been found to reduce disruption by about 25%. You could even gather students around the poster that illustrates the rule(s) and ask them for the justification for it. * If a rule is broken remind the student that, Ã¢â¬Å"we agreedÃ¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ and remind them that they are part of a team so must keep to team rules. Be a Ã¢â¬Ëteam playerÃ¢â¬â¢ could be a heading on the list of rules * Get students to self assess their own behaviour against the rules with a self-assessment form. Then use this to set themselves targets for improvement. See the example below Self-assessmentIsÃ¢â¬ ¦((student name here))Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. a team player? | I kept to this rule:| | always| often| some-times| never| Treat others as you want to be treated yourself| | | | | Hands up if you want to say something when the teacher is talking| | | | | DonÃ¢â¬â¢t distract others from their work| | | | | Etc.. | | | | | | | | | | Improvement since my last self assessment:What I need to work on most is: | If you use self-assessment consider the following: * Asking students to remind themselves of their self-assessed targets at the beginning of a class (see the last row in the self assessment form above). Tell them you will ask them to self-assess any improvement at the end of the same class. * Allow students to reward themselves with a sticky blob against their name on your notice board if they have improved, say, twice running in these self-assessments. Yes I know this sounds toe-curlingly naff, but the less mature students often love this. Strategies to improve teacher-student relationships If you have read chapter 25 you will recognise the value driven management and leadership approach that was so successful in managing staff. The strategies below have reduced disruptions in classrooms by 31% on average. Good teacher-student relations ensure that students have a more positive attitude to the teacher and to learning, and make them more likely to accept rules and any disciplining. They turn the classroom into a cooperative team, and reduce antagonism. So even if you detest the little clutch of demons, its worth developing good relations with them, and if you do, you might find that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t detest them quite as much! What is the nature of good teacher-student relations? Marzano (2003) quotes internationally renowned research by Theo Wubbels, whose findings remind me of the old staffroom adage Ã¢â¬Ëbe strict but fairÃ¢â¬â¢. Wubbels has found that the most effective teachers are both dominant (strong leaders) and cooperative (helpful, friendly and fair), but they are neither to extreme. This is shown diagrammatically below. The Ideal teacher-student relationship Dominant * Strong sense of purpose in pursuing clear goals for learning and for class management. * Leadership. Tends to guide and control * Prepared to discipline unapologetically Too dominant * Too controlling * Lack of concern for students * Teacher student relations damaged Ideal teacher- student relationship Opposition. * Treats students as the enemy * Expresses anger and irritation * Need to Ã¢â¬ËwinÃ¢â¬â¢ if there is a disagreement between teacher and students Cooperative * Great concern for the needs and opinions of students. * Helpful, friendly * Avoids strife and seeks consensus Too cooperative * Too understanding and accepting of apologies * Waits for students to be ready * Too desirous to be accepted by students Submission * Lack of clarity of purpose * Keeps a low profile * Tendency to submit to the will of the class * Entirely unassertive, rather glum and apologetic The diagram tries to show that the most effective teachers have found an optimal balance between cooperation and dominance. They are not so dominant that they fail to cooperate, nor so cooperative that they fail to lead. The precise approach will of course depend on the nature of the class; some need more dominance or more cooperation than others. Research has also shown that students prefer the dominant-cooperative mix about twice as much as the purely cooperative style, or indeed any other style. Wubbels has found that teachers new to the profession tend to start too cooperatively and with insufficient dominance. However after 6 to 10 years they often become too dominant. To improve student-teacher relations experiment with some or all of the following strategies which other teachers have made work well. Are you better at dominance or cooperation? Ideally you should strengthen your weakest style, even if you also work on your strongest. Many students are coping with stress, difficult home circumstances and worry about abuse, depression, eating disorders and so on. If your students experience such social and psychological strains you will need to attend to these as well trying the strategies that follow. This goes beyond the scope of this chapter. The Ã¢â¬ËFATEÃ¢â¬â¢ approach in Ã¢â¬ËTeaching TodayÃ¢â¬â¢ may help, as will Marzano (2003). Strategies to increase your dominance (leadership) DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be put off by the word Ã¢â¬ËdominanceÃ¢â¬â¢. It means to become an effective leader, to pursue, vigorously and enthusiastically, a clear path towards both important learning goals, and good behaviour in the classroom. It does not mean to strut about in jackboots barking orders. We are doing this for the students, so we need not be shy about taking charge and accepting responsibility. 1. Ground Rules If you negotiate ground rules with students, and consequences for not keeping them as described on page , then you have already shown this attribute to some considerable extent. 2. Orientation Clarify the purpose and the key points in each topic before it is taught, including a persuasive reason for studying it. If you have read chapter 16 you will remember that these methods had very high effect sizes. (An effect size of 0. 5 for a strategy means that if it is done well students learn the topic about a grade better. An effect size of 1. 0 gives a two-grade improvement. By Ã¢â¬ËgradeÃ¢â¬â¢ I mean an improvement equivalent to a GCSE or Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ level grade, but just for that topic of course. ) Strategy| Effect size from Marzano| Goal setting before introducing a new topic. E. g. Ã¢â¬Ëyour goal is to use the information in this topic to solve this problem in the case studyÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬â¢| 0. 97| Goals which the students are involved in designing| 1. 21| Advance organisers (summary in advance of what is about to be learned along with a persuasive case for studying it)| 0. 48 for easy topics0. 78 for more demanding topics| Highly specific behavioural objectives Ã¢â¬Å"At the end of this lesson you should be able toÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ | 0. 12| Another way of setting goals is to discuss with students the assessment criteria for the task they will do, as long as they really understand these. 3. Authoritative body language Appear absolutely confident and in control, especially when you are not. When interacting with students, especially if dealing with misbehaviour, your dominance is conveyed by Ã¢â¬Ëbody languageÃ¢â¬â¢. This includes proximity, confident posture, and tone of voice (not shrill or angry, but authoritative. ) In Teaching Today I describe the Ã¢â¬ËPEPÃ¢â¬â¢ approach, which stands for: * Proximity: dominance is increased by walking closer to the student. Walk around the classroom, if you notice students about to misbehave stand by their desk. When you talk to students stand a little Ã¢â¬Ëtoo close for comfortÃ¢â¬â¢ but donÃ¢â¬â¢t invade Ã¢â¬Ëpersonal spaceÃ¢â¬â¢. This is not an easy judgement. * Eye contact: Holding eye contact expresses dominance, especially if you hold it for some time. What you say will be taken more seriously if you hold eye contact first for a few seconds, then say it maintaining the eye contact, then maintain eye-contact for a few seconds more. * Posing questions. Rather than telling a student off for not working, ask questions such as Ã¢â¬ËWhy have you not started? Ã¢â¬â¢ Do this with proximity and eye contact. This has much more effect than getting angry or raising your voice, and will make you appear much more in control. The combined effect of close proximity and sustained eye contact can be very powerful indeed, so donÃ¢â¬â¢t over do it. Strategies to increase Cooperation Being cooperative sounds easy, until you notice it means being cooperative with the worst behaved students in your class. This can try a saint. As so often in educational problems, we have a vicious cycle to deal with here, but with determination we can turn it into a virtuous cycle: Vicious cycle The student misbehaves more or works less well You are less positive, friendly and fair towards the student You dislike the student more and/orÃ¢â¬ ¦ The student dislikes you and your classes more In your direct control Breaking this cycle is hard, but it can be done. If you succeed it ensures the student behaves better, learns better, but it also makes your life much easier. You will need to have negotiated clear rules with your students as described earlier, then you can start to break this cycle. This requires a great deal of emotional generosity and/or patience and restraint. If you cannot muster the generosity, try acting! Probably the only part of the cycle you can break is: Ã¢â¬ËYou are less positive, friendly and fair towards the studentÃ¢â¬â¢ here are some strategies that break the cycle here: 1. Catch them doing something right. Keep an eye on them, and when you notice they are doing something right, even by accident, comment on this positively in private. Ã¢â¬ËWell done, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve made a startÃ¢â¬â¢. Many students who misbehave are attention seekers, and if they earn attention for behaving well, they are less likely to steal attention by misbehaving. You can even bribe such students: Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s an interesting start, when youÃ¢â¬â¢ve finished the question let me know and I will have a look at itÃ¢â¬ A promise of attention like this will often motivate students, but do keep your promise. See Madsen et al (1968) 2. Put the student into Ã¢â¬Ëintensive careÃ¢â¬â¢. There is a violent method to do this, which in your darkest moments often appeals! Here is a legal way. As well as Ã¢â¬Ëcatching them doing something rightÃ¢â¬â¢: Smile, use their name positively, ask for their opinion in class discussion, try to find something positive to say about their response. Make a point of looking at their work, and comment favourably about any genuine effort or achievement. Talk to them about it. Ã¢â¬ËThatÃ¢â¬â¢s an interesting point, what made you think of that? Ã¢â¬â¢. Keep high expectations however: Ã¢â¬ËI know you can do thisÃ¢â¬â¢. Be patient and helpful. If you react like this it shows you are not Ã¢â¬ËrattledÃ¢â¬â¢ by their misbehaviour. Warning! The above advice can be overdone. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t try too hard with Ã¢â¬Ëintensive careÃ¢â¬â¢ especially, as you will be disliked if you appear desperate to be liked. The trick is to make your behaviour seem very natural, and the way you teach everyone. So you must give this same attention to at least some well-behaved students nearby too. More general advice about increasing cooperation includes other ways of showing that you value students as individuals: 3. Learn and use their names 4. Communicate informally with students, DonÃ¢â¬â¢t just talk about learning issues. When they are coming into, or going out of the classroom ask their opinion: Ã¢â¬Å"Do you think your haircut would suit me? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬Å"What do you think of the new library? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ask about hobbies, attitudes and opinions, 5. Use eye contact and proximity to spread your influence about the whole room. 6. Negotiate difficulties with the class. Ã¢â¬Å"I am having problems with students not giving in work, whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the problem? What can we do about this? Ã¢â¬ The strategies on page 17 and 18 also help with cooperation. Improving disciplinary interventions The strategies that follow reduced disruptions in classrooms by 31% on average. There has been a heated debate for some decades over whether teachers should use mild punishments, or should only give students praise and recognition for appropriate behaviour. You may not be surprised to find that MarzanoÃ¢â¬â¢s meta-study, having statistically compared these approaches, shows that you are best doing both. However, while nearly all teachers will use mild punishments, few give enough recognition for good behaviour. If you only use punishments, such as telling students off in response to inappropriate behaviour, then you can create a negative, nagging image for yourself. Also, attention-seekers will begin to misbehave in order to get your attention, as it is the most effective way. Effect sizes are from Marzano (2003)| Average effect-size| Number of studies| Decrease in number of disruptions| Disciplinary Interventions| | | | RemindersReminding students of relevant rules just before they start an activity. E. g. reminding them of the ground-rules for working in groups before starting a group-work activity | 0. 64| 70| 24%| Ã¢â¬ËSticksÃ¢â¬â¢ Mild punishments| 0. 78| 40| 28%| Ã¢â¬ËCarrotsÃ¢â¬â¢ Strategies that reward students for appropriate behaviour including recognition, praise, symbols etc. | 0. 86| 101| 31%| Ã¢â¬ËCarrotsÃ¢â¬â¢ plus Ã¢â¬ËsticksÃ¢â¬â¢Using both mild punishments, and strategies that reward students for appropriate behaviour with recognition symbols etc. | 0. 97| 12| 33%| Reminders. Many teachers are reactive, waiting for disruption and then responding to it, yet reminding students of the ground-rules for a forthcoming activity is a very positive and quite effective strategy. If you have agreed class rules, and students have designed posters to illustrate them, gather students round the posters to discuss the rules, and ask questions about why we have them. This need not take long, yet has reduced the number of disruptions in experiments by almost a quarter on average. Carrots: strategies to reinforce appropriate behaviour. This works better than just telling students off, and most of us donÃ¢â¬â¢t do it enough. Try these strategies: 1. Tokens or symbols Here is an example. A teacher asks each student to start off the lesson with five behaviour Ã¢â¬ËpointsÃ¢â¬â¢. Or they might only do this with two or three problematical students. The students write five Ã¢â¬Ë1Ã¢â¬â¢s on a piece of paper on their desk. During the class the teacher places an extra Ã¢â¬Ë1Ã¢â¬â¢ if the student is working well, and crosses one off when they are not. Students often donÃ¢â¬â¢t need an explanation for the removal of a point if the class rules are clear. Simply praising good behaviour also works remarkably well, Madsen et al (1968). At the end of the class the student records how many behaviour points they have on a proforma. This might ask them to set targets for improvement. They might also be able to exchange these points for privileges such as sitting where they want, or giving out materials etc. It is important to explain the system you use and why: Ã¢â¬Ëto help you become better and more mature learnersÃ¢â¬â¢. It should not be seen as a bribe even when privileges are given. These are often laughed off by teachers, but they really work and are greatly underused Tokens and symbols can include: * A Ã¢â¬Ëthumbs upÃ¢â¬â¢ sign, wink, smile, praise etc to a student working well. It works especially well with problematical students * Ã¢â¬ËOfficial Pat On The BackÃ¢â¬â¢, this can be public or private. It is fun to Ã¢â¬Ësay this with capital lettersÃ¢â¬â¢ and administer it with mock ceremony, but not sarcastically * Recognition in class notices, bulletins or notice-boards * Round of applauseÃ¢â¬ ¦ or even standing ovation! * Encouraging words * Ã¢â¬ËOpen microphoneÃ¢â¬â¢. The student is asked to speak to the class to explain how they succeeded, or, if you are brave, to make any point they like. * Smiley faces, points, or stickers on a privately held record card, that you can ask to see and use as the basis for discussion on behaviour improvement. * Smiley faces, points or stickers on a publicly displayed class list * Badges: e. g. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m an improverÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The gal done goodÃ¢â¬ * Displaying work * Letters home saying that behaviour is good or has improved. Most students regard this as very significant and it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t cost that much. You could also use e-mail, text message, or phone message, but letters are permanent and you donÃ¢â¬â¢t even need to put a stamp on as students will be keen to take them home. They can be used to earn: * Privileges such as sitting where you choose, helping to give out materials, leading groups, being allowed to present to the class, etc * Ã¢â¬Å"Class pressure pointsÃ¢â¬ which the class can Ã¢â¬ËspendÃ¢â¬â¢ to persuade you not to set homework one particular week, or to allow more time to prepare for a test etc. * The opportunity to choose the work they do or the way they work. E.g. be able to write up their work on a classroom computer. * Letters, e-mails or text messages home, after say three weekly improvements * College or school certificates for mature behaviour. These can be given in half-termly Ã¢â¬Ëaward ceremoniesÃ¢â¬â¢ presented by the head of department * Being chosen to present to another class, or at parentÃ¢â¬â¢s evening or open evening * A class trip or visit earned if the class all improve in behaviour * Home privileges such as being allowed to keep your TV or computer games in your bedroom, to rent a video or buy a computer game. This clearly requires parental involvement. See the case study in the box below. 2. Self-assessment Students can use the self-assessment process described on page 5 to award themselves points or stickers etc. 3. Contingent rewards: These makes use of peer pressure to improve behaviour: a. Class carrots if the whole class behaves or improves. E. g. If the whole class reduces calling out instead of putting their hands up, then the whole class earn pressure points (described in the above box), or are allowed to go and see the Art DepartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s final show of work. Success needs to be defined carefully, for example no more than three people calling out in each class for at least one week. b. Class carrots if a specific individual or group of students behaves well or improves. This needs to be treated with caution. E. g. Ã¢â¬Å"We are all going to help to keep Philip in his seat. If you are next to him remind him if he moves. If he does move, donÃ¢â¬â¢t talk to him. If Philip doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get out of his place inappropriately for a week, the whole class gets five Team Player Points and Philip gets ten. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ËSticksÃ¢â¬â¢: strategies that involve mild punishment. This works best in conjunction with the Ã¢â¬ËcarrotsÃ¢â¬â¢ above. MarzanoÃ¢â¬â¢s metastudy stresses that the effect of this strategy comes from consistency rather than severity. Case studies with the use of rewards and punishments. TES 16th June 2006 www. tes. co. uk/search/story/? story_id=2250510 Duncan Harper, Head of a Special school says many children are miss-labelled as Ã¢â¬ËautisticÃ¢â¬â¢ or having Ã¢â¬ËAttention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderÃ¢â¬â¢ (ADHD). He believes their poor attention span etc is due to being too tired to work after spending four to five hours a night watching TV or playing computer games. 20% of his 58 children are diagnosed autistic, and 50% ADHD. But Harper thinks non are autistic, and only 2 have ADHD! He develops excellent relationships with the parents, who are contacted by phone every two weeks. He arranges with them to remove TVs and computer games from bedrooms if the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour/tiredness does not improve. Harper himself made seven such removals that year. A recent inspection graded the school as outstanding in all categories. Evidence is growing that poor sleep is affecting studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour, thinking and learning. Try Googling Ã¢â¬Ësleep student attainmentÃ¢â¬â¢. Consistency and assertiveness The punishment itself seems less important than your consistency in expecting a rule to be obeyed, and your assertiveness when talking to students or punishing them when you have to. Assertiveness is not the same as hostility. It is linked with Ã¢â¬ËdominanceÃ¢â¬â¢ mentioned earlier and means that when you deal with class management you are firm, unemotional, matter of fact, unapologetic, confident and business like. It often includes a reminder to the student that you are implementing agreed class rules, not personal dictats. Being hostile angry or very strict is less effective, and may suggest to students that you are losing control. Be assertive Imagine you are dealing with a student who has been persistently talking. You have warned her that if she talks inappropriately again, you will move her. Despite this, she continues to talk. You could get angry, sarcastic and over-strict at this point. But it is more effective to be assertive: 1. Proximity and eye contact. Walk up to the student (proximity), with a firm upright posture, and fix them with eye contact . There should be little emotion in your voice or face. Just a business like confidence. 2. Ask for what you want in a decisive manner, act as if you mean it, and expect to be obeyed. The pitch of your voice should not be shrill, only slightly raised. Ã¢â¬Å"I want you to move next to John now. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But Pete started itÃ¢â¬ 3. Listen, but use the broken record. Listen to such legitimate objections. It sometimes helps to repeat the objection to show you have listened as below. However do not accept denials, blaming or other arguing unless a genuinely strong case is made. It is the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to keep the class rules despite difficulties. Repeat what you want. Ã¢â¬Å"Even if Pete did start it, you should not have talked again. Please move now. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not fairÃ¢â¬ (This process of listening, perhaps acknowledging what was said, but then repeating what you want continues as long as necessary. This is sometimes called the Ã¢â¬Ëbroken recordÃ¢â¬â¢. ) You remain firm unruffled and business like. Ã¢â¬Å"We all agreed our class rules are fair. Please move. Ã¢â¬ 4. Defer discussion but require obedience. If the student persists tell them that they are wasting valuable class time, and must continue this conversation after the class. In the meantime they must move. Repeat this once if necessary very firmly. 5. Withdraw. If they still donÃ¢â¬â¢t move remind them that defiance is a very serious There is a list of responses to inappropriate behaviour in Teaching Today 3rd edition, pages 117-8 offence and that they must see you after the class. Walk away to signal the dialogue is now over. The student might now move. If not, seek guidance from tutors and class managers; defiance is a health and safety issue as they might not even stop doing something dangerous when you tell them to. 6. Use Discipline Plans. If a student does not respond to assertive behaviour like this and problems persist, consult tutors and managers. Sit down with the student in a private one to one situation, and draw up a Ã¢â¬ËDiscipline PlanÃ¢â¬â¢ Allen. T (1996) * State the relevant class rules and explain why they help everybody learn and help create a happy classroom * Ask the student why they have a problem keeping the rule(s) and what would help them keep it better. Stress that the rule must be kept despite the stated difficulties. Ask them to become a team player.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
1. Describe the trends of violence throughout the history of the United States. How do the rates of violent crime in the United States compare to rates of these crimes internationally? During ancient times and the Middle Ages, crime was basically a rural problem rather than a urban problem and it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until after the 1960s in the United States that urban rates for homicide exceeded those of rural areas. In Canada, the rural homicide rate still exceeded the urban rate in the 1970 and a number of studies have shown that countries with greater inequalities in income distribution have higher murder rates. In the Unites States, racial disparity is highest in arrest rates for crimes of violence and the arrest rate for blacks is about eight times the rate of whites. Prior to the 1930s, the United States had no national crime statistics but information reflects that at the turn of the twentieth century, violent crime rates were equal to the present levels. Although the willful homicide rate declined from its peak in 1933, this dip in crime was somewhat misleading due to better treatment methods and more survivors of crime but by the seventies, the sheer volume of violence had surpassed the means of recovering victims. At the beginning of the early 1990s, the United States was enjoying unprecedented low levels of criminal violence although the rate of homicide by black, urban juveniles exploded due to the crack cocaine epidemic, poverty, single-parent households, educationalShow MoreRelatedGuns And Their Effect On Gun Control962 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto use them have been under attack in the United States and many other places throughout the World. There are groups of people that believe that as long as we have the right to bear arms that many unp rotected people will lose their lives due to gun violence. There are many trends that come with gun violence and where these mass shooting occur, but a main one is that when a place legally prohibits carrying a weapon then that is where the most gun violence happens. Where guns are not legally presentRead MoreLiberalism And Conservatism Are An Abstract Political Ideology1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdemocratic, libertarian, humanitarian, egalitarian, and permissive. Conservative attributes focus on, Ã¢â¬Å"small state, minimal regulations, individual freedom and responsibility, patriotism, and strong law and orderÃ¢â¬ (Dommett, 2015). When measuring trends in a variety of topics, Smith (1990) found that trends dealing with individualism and equal rights were mostly associated with liberal views, while trends on the topic of crime was mostly associated with conservatives. Bruns and Gimpel (2000) noted that AmericansRead MoreWhat Is The Difference Between The Same States And The Unite d States1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBetween the Nordic states and the United States Many similarities can be drawn between the way in which the United States and the Nordic countries set up their criminal justice systems and governments. Each has a democratic constitution with governmental power divided among the three branches seen in the United States. Coalition governments are standard, as each sees multiparty political systems. Nationally organized institutions govern the justice system in the Unites States and in the Nordic countriesRead MoreCorrections Trends Evaluation Paper1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCorrections Trend Evaluation Carla Howard CJA 394 University of Phoenix Corrections have existed throughout society for many years and continued to change and evolve in the United States reflecting societyÃ¢â¬â¢s values and ideals throughout the centuries. In the criminal justice system, corrections exist in more than one form. Not only do corrections refer to jails and prison systems but they also pertain to community-based programs, such as probation, parole, halfway houses, and treatmentRead MoreOrder in Society1253 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessuch as the race, religion, and socioeconomic status of civilians. Misconduct and violence by the police can occur during protests and demonstrations, or everyday encounters with citizens. Much of the police brutality in the last few decades of American history can be identified to be dependent on racial factors, especially in the South. However, this trend is slowly reversing. As social conversation in the United States moves away from racial issues and towards economic disparity, police brutalityRead MoreRise Of The Warrior Cop1054 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRise of the Warrior Cop, by Radley Balko, centers around police in the United States and how it has gone through militarization throughout the years. Militarization is a process in which the police departments take on tactics that are similar to the tactics used by the military. Police forces were initially made to make our environment a safer place to live in. In this book, Balko explains how that has changed. Practices of policing first began when people would get hired, unofficially, to keep slavesRead MoreViolence in Youth1171 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction Youth violence is defined as violent behaviour that begins early in life and continues throughout subsequent stages of life. Youth violence may include physical and emotional harm, and minor crimes, escalating to murder (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). Youth are recognized as being between the ages of twelve and twenty-four however, teens are the most affected by violence than any other group of youths as they are habitually perceived as the most violent age groupRead MoreAmerican Indians And The American Indian1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn present day capitalist Unites States, we value the America Dream as much now as we did over a century ago. This opportunity of prosperity, success, and upward social mobility, entices the masses to work hard and achieve set aspirations. The American Dream however, is hindered across the American Indian population, and in order for this hope of prosperity to come to fruition, American Indians need to be given the same opportunit ies as all other ethnic groups. The term American Indian is officiallyRead MorePolitical Status of the Disputed Territories1318 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesin two general areas: religious idolatry and the formation of an officially recognized Palestinian state. The political status of Cyprus is fragmented and uncertain. Cyprus has been in disarray since 1974 when Turkey inserted military forces geographically and politically dividing the island nation. Since this time political tension between the Greek and Turkish Cypriots has been constant. United Nations involvement has inserted some relief but a new hydrocarbon discovery off the coast of CyprusRead More Capital Punishment Essay: Retain Capital Punishment?696 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesback. Quite clearly, such violence is to be denounced vehemently. Ã Appropriate measures should be employed to safeguard our community and reduce the incidence of crime. The guilty should pay the penalty for their actions. At the same time, however, we as Christians also consider it our duty to question the suitability of retaining the death penalty within our penal system. Ã Today, in our nation more than 2,500 human beings await execution. As throughout history, so in our day, a
Sunday, December 29, 2019
Background Epidemiology is the study of how often diseases spread through a population. This information can be used to help reduce the damage caused in future epidemics and also help to understand the best way to treat patients of a current epidemic. The word epidemiology comes from Greek, literally translating to Ã¢â¬Å"the study of what is upon the peopleÃ¢â¬ . However nowadays epidemiology is not limited to diseases among human populations, epidemiology can now be the study of disease in any defined population. Mathematical models of epidemics were not used until the early 20th century. When there were early pioneers such as William Hamer and Ronald Ross who successfully created models that shared similar properties to the disease. History Hippocrates The timeline of epidemiology starts in Greece with a man named Hippocrates, though now he is often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"The father of medicineÃ¢â¬ . Hippocrates was the first person to observe the link between disease and the environment of the infected person, and he then began to think about whether the link might be causal. Prior to this ground-breaking idea people had simply attributed disease to a supernatural phenomenon and had not considered that there may be a rational explanation for the spread of disease through the population. Hippocrates decided to investigate the environmental factors involved with disease after he had noticed that different diseases occurred in different locations (for example: Malaria only seeming to occur inShow MoreRelatedChildhood Obesity Among Hispanic Children1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Obesity among Hispanic Children Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decade (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Although the rise in obesity cuts across all of age groups, both genders, and all cultural and racial groups; statistics have demonstrated that Hispanic children are more likely to become obese than White or Black children in the United States. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (2011), childhood obesity is more prevalentRead MoreEpidemiology Nur/4081540 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEpidemiology of HPV in Teenagers Rosalyn Huf NUR/408 June 4, 2012 Linnette Nolte Epidemiology today is considered to be the core science of public health and is described as a constellation of disciplines with a common mission: optimal health for the whole community (Stanhope amp; Lancaster, 2008). Epidemiology has reformed public health and continues to strive for disease prevention and health promotion in communities across the world. The population and disease that will be discussed inRead MoreThe Scope Of Public Health1076 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat a population is living in conditions that enable it to thrive, we turn to the role of public health. We rely on public health officials to assess the health status of whatever population they are responsible for, to create and fulfill suitable plans of action that improve living conditions for those people. In other words, public health officials are designated for engaging in population health surveillance, controlling the spread of disease, and executing protocols for helping populations buildRead MoreDescriptiv e and Analytic Epidemiology1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRunning head: Descriptive and Analytic Epidemiology TUI University Lea Glover MPH 504 Descriptive and Analytic Epidemiology Case Assignment #3 Dr. Sharon Nazarchuk Abstract Descriptive epidemiology is defined as the study of the amount and distribution of disease within a population by person, place, and time. Descriptive epidemiology answers the following questions: Who is affected? Where and when do cases occur? It describes cases by person, place, and time (TUI University 2008). Read MorePersonal Statement : Health And Wellness976 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages What if as a society we began to focus more on preventing chronic disease rather than treating them after onset? This is the question that has driven my interest in public health. I began my undergraduate career as a Viticulture and Enology major. I loved the idea of spending my days in a vineyard, nurturing grapes to maturity and then creating a final product that was entirely different from its humble beginning. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until I was working in a lab at a winery that I realized winemaking wasRead MoreStds Essay1077 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesadolescents and young adults. When broken down, betwe en 2015-2016 among 15-19 years the rate of reported cases of chlamydia increased 4.0% (1,854.2 to 1,929.2 per 100,000), those 20-24 years rate increased 1.9% (2,594.5 to 2,643.8 per 100,000), and the age-specific rate of chlamydia in 2016 among 15-19 was 1,929.2 per 100,000 and among 20-24 was 2,643.8 per 100,000 (2016 Sexually, 2017). Which shows that chlamydia cases are highest among adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 years. Also, between 2015-2016Read MoreEpidemiology of Homeless1613 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEpidemiology of Homeless/Indigent People with Mental Illness Vulnerable populations are defined in many ways. Variables of the definition are dependent on the author, their current location and how they believe that they may assist this population. Vulnerability as defined in a healthcare setting are those with a greater than average risk of developing health problems by virtue of their marginalized sociocultural status, their limited access to economic resources, or personal characteristics suchRead MoreEpidemiology, The Science Of Preventive Medicine1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinvestigations, epidemiology traditionally has most often been associated with infectious diseases, with a focus on the epidemiological triad: agent, host, and environment. Epidemiology, the science of preventive medicine, provides a framework for studying and understanding these interactions. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and the determinants of states of health and illness in human populations. The basic conceptual framework of epidemiology is the interaction among the agent, hostRead MoreEpidemiological Studies : Risk Factors Essay1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesutilize to identify risk factors of diseases in populations. Knowledge of these risk factors is used to conduct further investigation and to implement intervention preventions. Since there is a global rise in human infectious diseases outbreaks, it is important to understand the methods of epidemiology, in order to understand the dynamics of diseases. In the synthetic epidemic study, we performed an experiment to develop an intervention to prevent the spread of disease. The hypothesis mentioned, if 9Read MoreHeppatits B: an Epidemic1566 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOrganization defines e pidemiology as Ã¢â¬Å"the study of the distribution and determinants of health- related states or events, and the application of the study to the control of diseases and other health problemsÃ¢â¬ (CDC, 2014). Determinates of health are Ã¢â¬Å"the circumstances in which people are born, live, work and age as well as the systems put in place to deal with illnessÃ¢â¬ . The communicable disease chain is a model beneficial to integrating the many concepts of communicable diseases (Maurer amp; Smith
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Stem cells play a fundamental role during all stages of development and have the potential to study and treat disease (Spitalieri et al., 2016). Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent cells that emerge from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and can give rise to various cell types (Liang and Zhang, 2013). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have similar characteristics but are derived from adult differentiated somatic tissue (Liang and Zhang, 2013). This review will briefly compare ESC and iPSC in the context of cell therapy and disease modeling. The human ESCs have long been considered the gold standard for modeling disease and have served as the basis for developing cell therapies (Spitalieri et al., 2016). However, the use ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦That is, ESC line are often exposed to fetal bovine serum or other animal-based media for culturing purposes (Desai et al., 2015). This increases the likelihood of activating the immune response and tissue rejection. It is, therefore, necessary for some receipts of ESC to take immunosuppressants and mitigate the immune response (Odorico et al., 2001). In recent years, researchers have developed ESC parthenogenetic lines that could provide HLA histocompatibility for the majority of a given population (Revazova et al., 2008). Moreover, ESC lines are currently being cultivated in systems that are free of animal contamination (Fu et al., 2010). Such improvements could advance the clinical application of hESC for the treatment of disease. Furthermore, iPSCs are in theory more ideal than ESCs for the modeling of disease due to two reasons. First, iPSC can capture the genotype of a particular individual and reproduce the severity of a disease (Acab and Muotri, 2015) Second, iPSC can take into account variations within different ethnic groups (Merkle and Eggan, 2013). This is not easily achieved in human ESC lines, which have thus far had limited success in modeling complex disease. In contrast, iPSCs can more closely recapitulate the genetic hallmarks of a disease (Acab and Muotri, 2015). This may prove beneficial for toxicity-testing and development of new drugs for the treatment of disease (Pappas and Yang, 2008). Nonetheless, iPSCs suffer fromShow MoreRelatedThe Debate Over Stem Cell Research1685 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhile the use of stem cells can offer a lot to the scientific community, the derivation of stem cells from embryos is ethically unacceptable; and the use of stem cells in humans should be completely prohibited. Since the first research on embryo stem cells in 1998 on mice the controversy has been relentless (Timeline), and even now, scientists have made great strides in waning off of embryonic stem cells and instead using induced pluripotent stem cells from adults, however these have their issuesRead MoreHuman Embryonic Stem Cell Research1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJessica Rogers Kendra Gallos English III Honors 18 April 2016 Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, or HES cell research, is a very controversial ethical debate. This issues is a dilemma for scientist, religious activist, and many more. HES cell research is being disputed because the practice is morally wrong. The other side of the issue stands with many scientist, being that they see the potential lives it could save in the long run. Religious activist, andRead MoreEssay about Human Embryo Research 1019 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesequal. The same law should be enforced concerning human embryonic stem cell research. Dr. James A. Thomson discovered stem cells in 1998 and theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve intrigued scientist ever since. The stem cells themselves are derived from a three to four day old cluster of cells called a blastocyst and they are so coveted because they are pluripotent, meaning they can differentiate into any type of cell in the human body. Although embryonic stem cells show amazing potential to cure various disease such as cancerRead MoreStem Cel ls And Stem Cell Research1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessociety is that of stem cells. Stem cells are the cells in the early human developmental stage that form to be any type of cell. Not only do these cells have the ability to transform, but they also act as the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s repair system. With this knowledge, the scientific community has used these traits to help cure diseases and even save lives. However, there is a problem using stem cells for research. There are two kinds of stem cells that exist, Somatic stem cells and embryonic stem cells. The firstRead MoreStem Cell Type Is Best?1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTopic: Stem research, which stem cell type is best? Umbilical cord stem cells or embryonic stem cells. General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform the audience of the advantages and disadvantage of using embryonic and umbilical cord stem cells in research. Central Ideal: While medical researchers believe that the use of embryonic stem cells is their best option in research, others believe it to be unethical and immoral, and that umbilical stem cells are a good alternative to embryonicRead MoreEmbryonic Stem Cells615 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesinto spinal cord injuries. One of the topics he pushed for was embryonic stem cell research. Christopher Reeve died on October 10th, 2004, never fulfilling his goal to walk again. But if he had gotten the support and funding for stem cell research, his story might have ended differently. Embryonic stem cell research should be funded in the U.S because it could lead to the treatment to many diseases, there are other sources of stem cells, but they are limited to their use, and the eight-celled blastocystsRead MoreThe Controversy Of Eugenics And Genetic Engineering1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesproject ended in the successful mapping of the underestimated 20,500 genes that make up a humanÃ¢â¬â¢s genome and Ã¢â¬Å"has given the world a resource of detailed information about the structure, organization and function of the complete set of human genesÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"An OverviewÃ¢â¬ ). In modern times, eugenics has evolved into genetic engineering, and it is still as controversial a topic as it was in the 1940s. But why is that so? Surely if the option to change a negative trait about someone existed, such as eliminating aRead MoreStem Cells : Justification Of Utilization Of Stem Cell1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnvesha Mukherjee Hong GT Biology 9-1 19 February 2016 Stem Cells: Justification of Utilization of Stem Cells in Injuries/Paralysis Habitually, the majority of significant scientific discoveries that have occurred over the course of human history have been the center of fierce debate and controversy for one reason or another. From radical perspectives such as the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s orbital around the sun to the theory that the planet isnÃ¢â¬â¢t geographically flat, scientists are often at the focal point of ethicalRead MoreThe Importance of Stem Cell Research Essay examples1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis a promising future in stem cells that offer a possible treatment for a wide variety of diseases. Scientists discover the capabilities of stem cells through their ability to repair, their opportunity of treatment, and their potential in future research. Stem cell research is the gateway to opportunities of treatments for diseases and possible cure for cancer, as scientists test the capabilities of stem cells. Stem cells are unspecialized that develop into other cell types and they replicateRead MoreStem Cells Essay1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescontroversial research in stem cells. This technology offers hope to millions who are victims of a multitude of diseases and disorders. It can be used to regrow limbs, create organs, attack genetic diseases, treat malfunctioning bladders, etc. However, this same technology is also one of the most controversial debates in science today. If you type Ã¢â¬Å"stem cells researchÃ¢â¬ into your Google search bar, you will most likely find not only advances in this field or a basic overview of stem cells, but articles on
Friday, December 13, 2019
The name Ã¢â¬Å"FrankensteinÃ¢â¬ is probably one of the most recognizable names in literature. The name came from the creature in Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Frankenstein or the Modern PrometheusÃ¢â¬ (1818) It is a name that has captured the imagination and the fear of readers of many generations worldwide. And so, it is just understandable that many writers had adapted the story and the character of Frankenstein. We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein or any similar topic only for you Order Now The original piece Ã¢â¬Å"Frankenstein or the Modern PrometheusÃ¢â¬ (1818) was remarkably written by Mary Shelley when she was only eighteen years old. Many other works were remakes of ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s masterpiece, a testament to the success of the original text. Here are some of the remakes of Ã¢â¬Å"FrankensteinÃ¢â¬ in no particular order: Ã¢â¬Å"FrankensteinÃ¢â¬ a film directed and written by J. Searle Dawley (1920), Ã¢â¬Å"FrankensteinÃ¢â¬ a film that was directed by James Whale (1931), Ã¢â¬Å"Frankenstein 1970Ã¢â¬ a film by director Howard Koch (1958), Ã¢â¬Å"Frankenstein: The True StoryÃ¢â¬ a television film written by Christopher Isherwood and directed by Jack Smight, Ã¢â¬Å"Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s FrankensteinÃ¢â¬ a movie adaptation by director Kenneth Branagh (1994), Ã¢â¬Å"FrankensteinÃ¢â¬ a mini-series for US TV by the Hallmark television network (2004), Ã¢â¬Å"FrankensteinÃ¢â¬ television adaptation by ITV (2007), Ã¢â¬Å"Frankenstein Jr. nd the ImpossiblesÃ¢â¬ an animated series adaptation in US television, Ã¢â¬Å"Frankenstein or The VampireÃ¢â¬â¢s VictimÃ¢â¬ a play adaptation staged at the Gaiety Theater in London (1887) The character of Frankenstein also appear in many other works, a contemporary example would be in the movie Ã¢â¬Å"Van Helsing. Ã¢â¬ Even though there are many adapted versions of Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s masterpiece, all of those versions would still be inline with the original text. All of the main components of the novel are still intact like the characters, themes, setting, plot, and of course a remake would be incomplete without the inclusion of Frankenstein. There are many themes that could be unearthed from this particular text. Here are some of the most visible ones: man playing god, acceptance, secrecy, loneliness, humanity, knowledge, aesthetics, ethics, responsibility, and many others. In relation to the theme of responsibility, Victor Frankenstein had uttered Ã¢â¬Å"William, Justine, and Henry they all died by my handsÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 156) In that particular scene, Victor claims responsibility for the tragic death of the children even though they did not literally died by his hands. In the original text, the story is set during the eighteenth century. The location of the narrative would be constantly changing. The locations would be in Geneva, the Alps, Ingolstadt, Scotland, and England. But in the later adaptations, more contemporary locations were chosen by the writers. For instance in the animated series Ã¢â¬Å"Frankenstein Jr. and the ImpossiblesÃ¢â¬ , the story is set in the future and Frankenstein would be depicted as a young robot. In the original novel, it is mainly Victor Frankenstein and the creature (commonly regarded as Frankenstein) that would be interacting and conflicting with each other. But in most of the remakes of Frankenstein, some of the original characters were deleted. Even Victor Frankenstein was deleted in some of the remakes. And of course, the eight-foot monster with superhuman strength and intelligence (and a remarkable humanity within could also be considered) monster, more commonly known as Frankenstein would be a staple character in the remakes. Making Frankenstein one of the most feared, but at the same time loved fictional characters in literature. How to cite Frankenstein, Papers Frankenstein Free Essays From the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, the concept of the noble savage was extremely popular. People believed that man was inherently good and any evil that he develops is a direct result of the corrupting force of civilization. In Frankenstein, Shelley illustrates this change through the story of the creature. We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein or any similar topic only for you Order Now The underlying theme in the creatureÃ¢â¬Ës story is a lack of understanding between him and other people. In his story, it is revealed that he was created knowing nothing. He did not understand emotions that normal people felt, nor did he know how to speak. This is the source of his misery in that he is unable to communicate with other people or understand their reactions. When he is driven away by fearful villagers, he is left wondering why they would do such a thing. It would seem that he is condemned to a life alone, unwanted by society. However, he finds hope when he stumbles upon the dwelling of a family. The creature, through his observations of the family, learns to speak their language and to understand human emotions. He longs to present himself to the family and to be accepted by them.However, when he finally does, they act like every other human he has encountered and drive him away. Through his reaction, it can be seen that this event changes his disposition towards humans. Before, he was a benevolent being, helping others and not wanting to do harm. This is shown when the creature says, Ã¢â¬Å"I discovered also another means through which I was enabled to assist their labors. Ã¢â¬ Being driven away by people that he put so much trust in made him an altogether different person. The creature now is totally different from what he once was. He has gained knowledge of both himself and of people.While he once was an ignorant being, now he has learned that no matter where he travels, people will fear and hate him. This is because people fear what they donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand. Even though the creature clearly wished the family no harm, they attacked him. The change that overcomes the creature sparks an intense hatred of all humans, and because of his experiences with people, he has decided to make war on their species. This change shows the concept of the noble savage. The creature was not angry until he had learned and been enthralled with the idea of joining a society.When the society he loved rejected him, his love turned to hate. This leads him to murder William and to seek revenge on his creator for giving him life and condemning him to live a miserable existence. Throughout the story, FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s creation changes from an ignorant, emotionless shell of a creature to a knowledgeable being. The monster now can think and act for himself, something that he learned. His story is that of a quest; a quest to gain self-knowledge about what he is and where he came from. In the end, the quest ended with him gaining much more self-knowledge than he set out in search of. How to cite Frankenstein, Papers Frankenstein Free Essays The Power of Frankenstein and Manfred Throughout the novel Frankenstein, author Mary Shelley clearly illustrates the moral of the story. God is the one and only creator; therefore, humans should never attempt to take His place. Literary critic Marilyn Butler sums up that we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t to tamper with creation in her comment: Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t usurp GodÃ¢â¬â¢s prerogative in the Creation-game, or donÃ¢â¬â¢t get too clever with technologyÃ¢â¬ (302). We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein or any similar topic only for you Order Now Butler warns that as humans, we should never assume the position of God. As Victor Frankenstein takes advantage of his deep scientific knowledge, he is punished for taking his experimenting too far. The novel opens as Victor Frankenstein recalls his curiosity and fascination with human life. Frankenstein quickly becomes obsessed with experimenting, and he attempts to create a living being out of dead body parts. He succeeds, but his creation turns into a living monster. Exclaimed by Frankenstein, Ã¢â¬Å"It was the secrets of heaven and earth that I desired to learnÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 33). Victor is extremely horrified by his grotesque looking creation and falls into a severe illness. While Victor is ill, the monster escapes to the woods where he watches a family and tries to befriend the humans. But once the monster makes his presence known, the family canÃ¢â¬â¢t accept FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s ugly appearance. Because all humans he encountered reject him, the monster begins to hate people and believe that they are his enemies. Frustrated, the monster returns to his creator and demands that Frankenstein makes a female companion to cure his loneliness. The creature promises Victor that he will leave with his female companion, travel to South America, and never come in contact with humans again. However, two years beforehand, the creature spitefully murdered VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s brother William to get back at him. Holding a grudge against his monster creation for the death of William, Victor refuses to make a friend for the monster. In an effort to make Victor as miserable as himself, the monster seeks revenge on his creator. The monster takes his frustration out on everything and everyone dear to Victor, and murders of FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s family and friends. The remainder of the novel revolves around the struggles Victor Frankenstein encounters as he attempts to escape from the mess of a vengeful monster he has made. The moral of the story doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t simply stress that God is the only Creator, but it also emphasizes the responsibility we need to take for our actions. Humans all make mistakes, but we are all held accountable. Victor Frankenstein creates this monster and then runs away from the disaster he makes. Similarly, parents are responsible for the children they have, even if the pregnancy wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t desired. Frankenstein creates a monster he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want, but he is still responsible to take care of his mistake, which he fails to do. Victor Frankenstein expresses: Ã¢â¬Å"It was a strong effort of the spirit of good, but it was ineffectual. Destiny was too potent, and her immutable laws had decreed my utter and terrible destructionÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 38). Victor describes his intention to create as a good intent, but because the monster he created was sinful, his effort was useless. Victor is quick to blame his terrible creation on destiny saying that he was only trying to do honorable actions, but they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t successful. Though the message of the story is apparent, the antagonist and protagonist of the story canÃ¢â¬â¢t be as clearly identified. In the beginning of the novel, Victor Frankenstein is the bad guy for creating his monster and not caring for it. However some readers may say that as the story develops, the monster turns into the antagonist. The monster is searching for ways to make his creator unhappy. The monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s god is Victor, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know of any higher power. The monster learns to be evil and vengeful as he observes the humans, so he acts upon what he sees. Clearly, the monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s sins such as murder are deliberate. The monster, however, wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t taught how to behave appropriately in situations. As we are commanded in the book of Romans, we are not to take revenge: Ã¢â¬Å"Do not take revenge, my dear friends, but leave room for GodÃ¢â¬â¢s wrathÃ¢â¬ (Revelation 12:19). Though I am a firm believer that we are to follow GodÃ¢â¬â¢s commands, I believe that the true antagonist of the story is Victor Frankenstein. Victor is the creator of this evil being, thus he is responsible for the neglect and actions of his monster. It is inevitable that a time comes for parents to let their children branch out to make their own decisions. Parents cannot be held fully accountable for their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s mistakes, but they are accountable for the foundation on which they raised their children. Victor is very responsible for the monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions because Victor failed to give him a fair foundation. Running from his sins, Victor Frankenstein is responsible for all of his personal actions and most of the actions of the monster he chose to create. Victor dangerously messes with GodÃ¢â¬â¢s job of creating. Once he makes this creature, he should have taken responsibility for the life he brought into the world. Because the creature isnÃ¢â¬â¢t nurtured, taught, and loved, I believe that all of his later sinful acts of revenge are a direct reflection of him being neglected. The monster does not create himself, or chose to be neglected, so he shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be responsible for most of his behaviors. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, everyone is held accountable for their actions, no matter what background or family situation they come from. Sometimes, we are unfairly held accountable for our wrongdoings even if werenÃ¢â¬â¢t provided with the resources to make better decisions. Generally, in situations such as in the classroom or social conditions, children and adults who havenÃ¢â¬â¢t had teaching and advantages given to them arenÃ¢â¬â¢t held as highly accountable for their actions. This is a similar situation to Frankenstein and the monster he regrettably made. I believe that Frankenstein should be held more highly accountable for his mistakes. The monster was never taught how to behave as he grew up, which wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t his fault. Living in the woods and being able to observe how humans should acceptably behave, he should be held partially accountable for his actions. I have come to understand that we are held accountable for what we know. Victor Frankenstein was an educated man who knew better than to tamper with the creation of life. There is no excuse for the mistake he made and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t assume responsibility. Victor Frankenstein is more of a monster than the monster he created. Evil is at the heart of the story as expressed by critic George Levine: Ã¢â¬Å"In gothic fiction, but more particularly in Frankenstein, evil is both positively present and largely inexplicable. Ã¢â¬ The monsters evil nature is inexplicable. As he was never nurtured and taught manners, the monster was also never taught to be evil. The monster chose to act on his evil emotions, which isnÃ¢â¬â¢t easily identified. At the end of the novel in an effort to destroy humans, especially his creator, the monster kills Victor FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s brother, William, when he sees him in the woods. The monster also kills VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s love, Elizabeth. The monster is a prisoner to this state of a lonely life. He couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help the way he was born into the world and left to fend for himself. He could have, however, chose to act differently on his angry emotions. Initially, Victor thought that he could escape this misery and get rid of the monster if he made a female. After more careful thought, Victor was worried that he will create a whole family of monsters who would take over the world. The scientist refuses to get himself into even more of a mess. It does appear that Victor learned from his mistake, but it seems to be too late. Victor is being spiteful in refusing to make the monster a companion. Though Victor still refuses to take responsibility for the one monster he already created, he is smart enough to acknowledge the tragedy that would come from creation of another. The novel Frankenstein shows close relation to Lord ByronÃ¢â¬â¢s play Manfred. Mary Shelly used ByronÃ¢â¬â¢s poem as an inspiration for her novel as both stories exhibit manÃ¢â¬â¢s struggles with the supernatural. Byron opens his dramatic poem with Manfred pondering his guilty conscience. Manfred conjures up seven spirits: earth, ocean, air, night, mountains, winds, and the star, but none of them grant him the wish of forgetting the thoughts that race through his mind. Under the cast of a spell, he then pursues his own death, but is not given his wish of death. As Manfred stands on the edge of a cliff, he contemplates suicide: I feel the impulse Yet I do not plunge; I see the peril Yet do not recede; And my brain reels And yet my foot is firm. (1. 2. 280-283) Death doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take Manfred because it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t his time. Full of depression about his onetime lover, Astarte, and the suicide of his dear sister, Manfred doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to do. He refuses relief from the different spirits and also rejects religion. The Abbot shows up to Manfred to save his soul, but Manfred declines: Ã¢â¬Å"Manfred believes himself to be above his fellow mortals but he is not fit for the life of an immortal, either. To him, there is only one option for such a conflicted soul: deathÃ¢â¬ (Warren). Manfred refuses to stoop down low enough to allow a mortal to help him. Mary Shelley and Lord Byron both exhibit the danger of tampering with the power of God. Lord Byron writes: Ã¢â¬Å"Sorrow is Knowledge: they who know the most/ Must mourn the deepest oÃ¢â¬â¢er the fatal truth, / The Tree of Knowledge is not that of LifeÃ¢â¬ (1. 10-12). I interpret these lines to sum up that we shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t mess with the knowledge that we have, because it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t reap good things, or life. Victor Frankenstein certainly took his knowledge of science to a level beyond his place, and his knowledge brought about disaster life. Lord Byron also creates a character that takes too much control and acts in Gods position. Filled with guilt, Manfred tries to seize the power of God and decide his own time for death. That isnÃ¢â¬â¢t our position or our calling, only GodÃ¢â¬â¢s. Victor Frankenstein tries to assume the position of God by creating life. Similarly, Manfred tries to assume the position of God by deciding when to end life. Refusing the AbbotÃ¢â¬â¢s help, Manfred turns from religion. Both characters acted as if their own power was above everyone else and God. Victor thought he was good enough to take GodÃ¢â¬â¢s place of creating while Manfred thought he was too good to accept GodÃ¢â¬â¢s gift of salvation. Both Shelley and Byron paint a clear picture of the consequences that come from attempting to take GodÃ¢â¬â¢s power and position. Works Cited Butler, Marilyn. Ã¢â¬Å"Frankenstein and Radical Science. Ã¢â¬ Shelly 302. Byron, Lord. Manfred. Vol. XVIII, Part 6. The Harvard Classics. New York: P. F. Collier ; Son, 1909-14: Bartleby. com, 2001. www. bartleby. com/18/6/. [September 26, 2012]. Levine, George. Ã¢â¬Å"Frankenstein and the Tradition of Realism. Ã¢â¬ Shelly 209. Shelly, Mary. Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus. Ed. Simon ; Brown. 1818. Warren, Ashley. Ã¢â¬Å"Association of Young Journalists And Writers. Ã¢â¬ UniversalJournal AYJW. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. How to cite Frankenstein, Papers Frankenstein Free Essays Raphael Porras Tabula Rasa Theory: FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s Creature The nature versus nurture debate has been an ongoing issue in Psychology. It centres on whether a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour is a product of his or her genes or the personÃ¢â¬â¢s environment and surroundings. Some well-known thinkers such as Plato and Descartes proposed that certain things are inherited and innate or that they simply occur naturally regardless of human influences. We will write a custom essay sample on Frankenstein or any similar topic only for you Order Now On the other hand, other philosophers such as John Locke believed in what is known as the tabula rasa. It is a theory which suggests the human mind begins as a Ã¢â¬Å"white paper void of all characters without any ideas,Ã¢â¬ (Gerrig et al. 51-57). This theory is whatÃ Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein revolves on as one researcher suggests that this notion of tabula rasa is what ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s account of the CreatureÃ¢â¬â¢s development seems to hold (Higgins 61). By considering this concept, where all humans start as a Ã¢â¬Å"blank slate,Ã¢â¬ as reflected in the character development of the Creature and narrative style being used in the story, one can see that the personÃ¢â¬â¢s environment plays a big role in moulding a personÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and behaviour. This is noteworthy because the creature started his life as an innocent and naive person. He only became vicious and malevolent after going through harsh treatments of society. Although the Creature didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go through childhood, he began his life like a child. He had no knowledge or idea of how the world works. Ã¢â¬Å"I was a poor, helpless, miserable wretch; I knew and could distinguish nothing,Ã¢â¬ he said (Shelley 129). Higgins suggests that it is significant to know that the Creature did not describe any feelings of loneliness in his early stages of life; this only begins when he encounters the De Lacey family (63). Although he had been already treated ill by people prior to meeting them, the creature have not mentioned how he felt, whether he was upset about it or not, after all, he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to respond to any kind stimuli tossed at him. Through day to day observation of the De Lacey family, he learned various things, from reading and writing to human history and relationships. Of all the stuff he learned, there is one important aspect of life that affected him the most and that is the essence of having a family. He only started to have feelings of compassion and sympathy because of them. I saw no cause for [De LaceyÃ¢â¬â¢s] unhappiness; but I was deeply affected by it,Ã¢â¬ the Creature says (Shelley 136). The Creature became so attached to the family that when Ã¢â¬Å"they were unhappy, [he] felt depressed; when they rejoiced, [he] sympathized in their joysÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 138). To be accepted by them was a precarious moment for him but, unfortunately, he got rejected by the f amily whom he cared and loved. Because of this he flees to the woods, and in turn, he saves a girl who almost got drowned. Instead of being called a savior for his heroic act, he rather got fired and shot that almost killed him. All these catastrophic moments of rejection by mankind add up to his feelings of aversion and abhorrence. Ã¢â¬Å"Inflamed by pain, [he] vowed eternal hatred and vengeance to all mankindÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 166). By killing VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s brother, William, and several of VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s beloved ones, he then turns into a vicious monster as what society brands him to be right from the start. This gradual development of the Creature, from an innocent human being to an atrocious monster, perhaps rests its claim on being a good foundation to the tabula rasa theory. Another functional way that Mary Shelley uses in the novel is her application of the first person narrative of the Creature. It is effective as it enables the readers to be more involved of the activities and engagements of the monster. Although he is not the protagonist of the story, this way of narration keeps the readers close to the action and makes them understand more the contemplations and cogitations of the Creature. This makes the readers feel as if they were part of a jury of a case where the monster is the one being prosecuted, trying to defend himself by relating his side of the story. Higgins suggests that the CreatureÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative form has an impact on his confessional writings and rhetoric alienation (62). Through this, one can see the transformation of the monster from being like a child into becoming a cold blooded murderer. Through her portrayal of the development of the Creature and her unique style of narration, Shelley is able to picture to the reader the reality that society plays an important role in wielding a personÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and behavior. Percy Shelley proposes that if you treat a person ill, he will become wicked; and if you requite affection with scorn, you impose upon him irresistible obligations Ã¢â¬â alevolence and selfishness (qtd. in Veeder 226). This, feasibly, holds true to the modern society today for no one is born a killer unless he or she is pushed to kill someone through traumatic and disastrous life events and experiences. Works Cited Gerrig, Richard, et al. Psychology and Life. 2nd ed. Toronto: Pearson Canada, 2012. Pr int Higgins, David. Frankenstein: Character Studies. Cornwall: MPG Books Ltd, 2008. Print. Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. Eds. D. L. Macdonald, and Kathleen Scherf. Buffalo: Broadview P, 1999. Print. Veeder, William. Mary Shelley Frankenstein. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1986. Print. How to cite Frankenstein, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Legal Writing and Research Communication Law. Answer: Introduction: The Supreme Court is the main head of the judicial system in the Republic of Singapore. All cases related to civil and criminal laws are dealt with by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is made up of primarily two courts one of them is the High Court and the other is the Court of Appeal. All the appeals relating to both civil and criminal cases arising out of the High Court are made to the Court of Appeal. The power to review appeals and decide a case on the basis of law which is exclusives to that of the High Court as well as courts subordinate to the High Court, is also vested in the Court of Appeal (Our Legal System ,2016). If the valuation of a civil suit is more than S$250,000 it is eligible to be tried in the High Court. Matters relating to probate are also eligible to be trialed in the High Court if the subject matter of the case is more than S$3 million and also if the case is in relation to foreign grant resealing. Suits relating to ancillary issue in family, which have a value of more than S $1.5 million, are also dealt with by the High Court (Gill, 2013). The High Court also has the power to try criminal proceedings, which involve capital punishment, and punishments, which exceeds 10 years of imprisonment. Offences in relation to which bail cannot be granted are also tried by the High Court. All matters, which arise in the territories of Singapore, are eligible to be tried by the High Court as a rule of thumb (Baum, 2015). The judicial powers in relation to Singapore are given to the Supreme Court and its chief justice is appointed as the chief of the judicial system. There are no restrictions made upon the Supreme Court for trying any proceedings be it criminal or civil. The Supreme Court consists of two tiers of courts the upper tier of the Supreme Court is the Court of Appeal and the lower tier is the High Court (Chan Lee, 2015). The judicial commissioners, judges of appeal and the chief judge make up the judges panel for the Supreme Court. The president of the republic of Singapore makes all appointments with respect to the judges panel of the Supreme Court with prior consultation with the prime minister who also consults the prevailing chief justice to make such decisions. If a person has been eligible under the Legal Profession Act and or has been a member of the legal services of Singapore for not less than 10 years he is eligible to be appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court. The Court of Appeal in the Supreme Court consists of the chief justice as well as the judges of appeal. The judges of the High Court can be asked by the chief justice to preside over selected proceedings in the Court of Appeal. Registry of the Supreme Court of Singapore has the responsibility to manage the administrative works of the court. Administrative works such as acknowledging the receipt of documents and making sure that they are sent to the judges for reference at the time of hearings are done by the registry. The registrar heads the registry of the Supreme Court of Singapore with assistance from then assistant registrar. The appointment criteria of these officers are similar to that of the judges. The judicial system of Singapore is divided into two levels and the state courts belong to the lower level of the judicial system. The state courts in Singapore are made up of mainly the district courts and the magistrate courts. A few specialized courts and tribunals for small claims are also a part of the state courts of the republic of Singapore. All cases which are not eligible to be tried by the Supreme Court are entitled to be tried by the state or subordinate courts of the republic of Singapore. More than 95% of the legal proceedings in Singapore are tried in the subordinate courts. The subordinates courts of Singapore annually handle 350,000 legal proceedings on an average. The judges and the registrar of the state courts operate under the authority of the Legal Services Commission of Singapore. Similar to that of the Supreme Courts the president also makes the appointment of the state court judges after the recommendation from the chief justice. The state courts of Singapore consist of six operation units, which are: The civil justice division The community justice and tribunal division The criminal justice division Dispute resolution center Corporate service division Division for strategic planning technology The responsibility of administration with respect to the subordinate courts in Singapore vests in a position occupied by a judge of the Supreme Court, a judicial commissioner or the presiding judge of the subordinate courts (Koman Whalen-Bridge, 2015). The legal proceeding which are tried by the state courts are adjudged with the help of a team of judges the leader of which is the presiding judge of the state courts. The district courts are eligible to conduct only those legal proceedings where 10 years punishment is maximum. It can give punishment, which is less than 10 years, it can sanction fine not more than $30,000 and a maximum of twelve cane strokes. This limitation has an exception with respect to legislations like the Misuse of Drug Act, Companies Act, and Prevention of Corruption Act. Whereas the magistrate courts are eligible to conduct those legal proceedings where five years punishment is the limit, where the maximum fine applicable is $10,000 and punishment, which allow for maximum of six cane strokes (Tan Teh, 2013). The main sources of law in the republic of Singapore are the constitution, legislative sources, subsidiary legislations like rules and regulations, case laws previously made by the courts and lastly customs which prevail in the country (Keltner Lillie, 2013). The most prominent source of law in the republic of Singapore is its constitution. The fundamental structure of the three pillars of the country, which are the legislative department, the judicial department and the executive department, are laid down by the constitution. The laws stated in the constitution of the country are studied in details and interpreted precisely for proper use. The rights duties and liberty enjoyed by the citizens of Singapore are laid down by the constitution through Article 4. Any law which do not comply with the provisions of the constitution is not valid and void (Barr, 2013). Another important source of law in Singapore are the laws made by the legislature. These laws are made and processed through the parliament before being enforced. The laws passed b y the parliament are also called statues (TAN, 2015). These laws are brought into existence through a resolution in the parliament to maintain law and order in the society. Like to stop the citizens of Singapore to be affected by use of dangerous drugs The Misuse of Drug Act has been enacted. The punishment and penalties for the individuals or group who deal in or consume dangerous drugs are enforced through this act. Acts to specify punishment to different categories of crime, laws to protect women and children from exploitation, laws to maintain fair and ethical business practices are also enacted by the parliament. The citizens of the republic of Singapore chose the members of the parliament through voting other members of the parliament are chosen through a process of nomination. All the bills passed through the parliament must be signed and acknowledged by the president of the republic of Singapore. The bills are passed through a first reading, second reading, the committee reading and the third reading in the parliament before they become a statue. The bill is also reviewed by the president council for minority rights before it becomes a statue. The Penal Code, Sale of Goods Act and the womens charter are a few examples of statues passed by the parliament. The rules and regulations, which are made by the executive department such as the health department, local bodies and statutory boards other than the parliament, are also one of the sources of law in Singapore. These laws include rules, regulations, by-laws, notifications, order and a proclamation. Regulation 16 of the Environment Public Health Regulation, the Miscellaneous Offences Rules, public Entertainment and Meetings Order, Rapid Transit System Regulations and The Sale of Food Regulations are a few sub legislations, which form the sources of law in Singapore. The decisions made by the courts in Singapore are also taken as a source of law in the country (Kozel, 2013). These decisions and adjurations may be the interpretation of the laws, which already exist or can be decisions, which bring a new concept in existence through development of laws of natural justice, equity and common law. Many major legal issues is Singapore like contract issues , issues related to property and even issues related to trust, torts and equity are often addressed through the use of judicial precedents. With the help of judicial precedents, it is ensured that a proper and just meaning to the existing statues in given. According to the doctrine of Stare Decisis , All the laws which are made by the higher courts has to be considered by the subordinate courts in making any decision about related cases. Thus, in Singapore the High Court is bound to obey the decision of the Court of Appeal and the High Courts decisions are binding on the adjudication process of the subordinate courts Judicial precedents mostly do not apply to decisions, which are made in the same courts. The judge of the subordinate court is not bound by the decision made by the judge of another subordinate court or any other judge of the same court. Some of the examples of judicial precedents are Chng sSan Tze v. Minister for Home Affairs and Fay Michael Peter v. Public Prosecutor (Lee, 2015) Customs are generally rules, which have been treated as laws from the very long period of time by the persons related to it. Customs can only be taken as a source of law in the modern society if they have been use and given attention upon in a case, they are not used as a source of law if they are inconsistent with any law, which is existing in the country at a given time. In order to be recognized as customs a rule has to be in regular use for a long period of time (Ovchinnikov, 2015). Customs in Singapore are not a major source of law and only a few customs have been recognized as a legal source. Few customs, which have become a source of law, are making checks in a bank, the modification of Muslim law by Malay Custom (Bin Abbas, 2012). References: Barr, M. D. (2013). Review Essay: Law and Order in a Land of Tough Love.Australian Journal of Asian Law,14(1). Baum, L. (2015).The Supreme Court. CQ press. Bin Abbas, A. N. (2012). Islamic Legal System in Singapore, THe.Pac. Rim L. Pol'y J.,21, 163. CHAN, G. K. Y. (2015). The Judiciary. Chan, G. K. Y., Lee, J. T. T. (2015). The Legal System of Singapore: Institutions, Principles and Practices. Gill, C. (2013). Open Access to Legal Materials in Singapore. Keltner, N. L., Lillie, K. (2013). SOURCES OF LAW.Psychiatric Nursing, 33. Koman, R. N., Whalen-Bridge, H. (2015). Clinical Legal Education in Singapore. InClinical Legal Education in Asia(pp. 137-158). Palgrave Macmillan US. Kozel, R. J. (2013). The Rule of Law and the Perils of Precedent. Lee, J. T. T. (2015). Foreign Precedents in Constitutional Adjudication by the Supreme Court of Singapore, 1963-2013.Washington International Law Journal,24(2), 253-288. Our Legal System | Ministry of Law. (2016). Mlaw.gov.sg. Retrieved 11 November 2016, from https://www.mlaw.gov.sg/our-legal-system.html Ovchinnikov, S. N. (2015). Definition of Customs Offences in International Law.Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences,6(3). TAN, E. K. (2015). The Legislature. Tan, B., Teh, M. K. (2013). Singapore.Handbook of Comparative Higher Education Law (Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group).